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Chapter 7 Launching the Nation Summary
Summary Section 1 & 2
Terms in this set (49)
Who was unanimously elected by the electoral college in January 1789; And the first president?
Who was George Washington's vice president?
Who was George Washington's wife and what did she do with him?
Martha Washington; entertained and accompanied her husband at social events. She was in charge of the presidential household.
Who was John Adams wife and what did she believe?
Abigail Adams; believed women needed to play a larger role in the nation than Martha Washington did.
Why did Abigail Adams and Judith Sargent Murray believe women should play a larger role in the nation?
because they educated their children to be good citizens; this was called Republican Motherhood
What did most women in the early republic face?
long days managing their households and working hard inside or outside the home to support their families
What did the new federal government establish in many areas when creating policies and procedures that would have great influence on the future nation?
a precedent; an action or decision that later serves as an example
What is a body of electors who represent the people's vote in choosing the president?
What did Congress form to oversee various areas of national policy?
departments in the executive branch
What were the department heads that the president, Washington, met with known as?
cabinet members and key advisors
What act did Congress pass that created the federal court system and the courts' location?
Judiciary Act of 1789
Who nominated candidates for federal judgeships?
Who held the power to approve or accept judges?
Who did Washington chose for his secretary of treasury?
Alexander Hamilton; also a gifted economic planner
Who did Washington chose for secretary of state? And also served as ambassador to France?
Who served as secretary of war? And helped Washington run the Continental Army?
Who was chosen as postmaster general? And had government experience?
Explain what the Judiciary Act of 1789 created.
3 levels of federal courts and defined their powers and relationship to the state courts; set up federal district courts and circuit courts of appeals
What did Americans expect for the new nation?
trade that did not have the limits put in place by the British Parliament; protection from the government and stable economy
About how many people lived in the US in 1790?
Most Americans worked on farms; what did these Americans hope for?
fair taxes, the right to move onto western lands, they did not want the government to interfere with their daily lives
What did Americans who lived in towns worked as craftspeople, laborers, or merchants want?
help with their businesses; Merchants wanted simpler trade laws. Manufacturers wanted laws to shield them from overseas competitors.
Most cities were small; what tow places topped 25,000 residents?
New York and Philadelphia
What was the first capital and reflected the new nation's spirit?
New York City
What did the agreement in 1792 that some 24 stockbrokers signed under a buttonwood tree on Wall Street create?
the New York Stock Exchange; it cemented Wall Streets' image as the economic hub of the US
As secretary of treasury, what was Hamilton's biggest challenge?
paying off the national debt that was occurred from the Revolutionary War; (money owed by the United States)
How much did the US owed to foreign countries from the war?
about $11.7 million
About how much did the US owe the citizens?
How did the government raise money during the Revolutionary war?
Bonds; certificates of debt that cary a promise to buy back the bonds at a higher price
The government could not keep the promise to buy the bonds back at higher prices so who did some bond holders sell their bonds to?
What are speculators?
people who buy items at low prices in the hope that the value will rise and they can sell the items for a profit
What was Hamilton's plan?
pay the foreign debt immediately and gradually repay the total value of all bonds
Why did Jefferson disagree with Hamilton's plan?
he thought the idea cheated bondholders who had sold their bonds at low prices; "Immense sums were thus filched (stolen) form the poor ignorant"
Who did most politicians agree with when it concerned paying back the bonds?
Hamilton; and paying back the bonds; in 1790 the government exchanged old bonds for new, more reliable ones that were guaranteed
The states owed $25 million for the Revolutionary war expenses; how much did Hamilton want to pay and why?
$21.5 million; he believed this action would help the federal government and paying the debts would help the national economy; it would free up the states money for trade and business
Why did southern states, such as Virginia and North Carolina, objecte to paying the war debts?
their war debts were relatively low
Why did the Southern states want the capital moved?
they thought it gave the northern states to much power
How did Hamilton, Jefferson, and James Madison get the southern states to help pay off the war debts?
change the location of the capital from New York to Philadelphia for 10 years then finally to Washington, DC
What kind of government did Hamilton want?
a strong central (federal) government that balanced power between the "mass of the people" and wealthier citizens; he did not want the citizens to have to much power; he had little faith in the average person
What kind of government did Jefferson want?
protection of state powers; the people had a right to rule the country; he admitted that "the people can not be all, and always, informed"
How did Hamilton want the economy to grow? List 3 ways
promote manufacturing and business; suggested government award a prize to companies that made excellent products; higher tariffs known as protective tariffs to encourage purchasing American goods
How did Jefferson want the economy to grow? List 2 ways
did not want to depend to much on business and manufacturing; backed farmers and lower tariffs
What was Hamilton's plan for a National Bank?
wanted a national bank so the government could safely deposit money; it would make loans to the government and businesses; should build a national mint; each state should also have it's own bank; loose construction
Why did Jefferson and Madison disagree with a national bank?
he believed a national bank would give the federal government to much power; the US Constitution did not give Congress the power to create a bank; strict construction
What clause did Hamilton declare allowed the government the ability to create a national bank?
the Elastic Clause
What is loose construction? And who supported it?
means the federal government can take reasonable actions that the Constitution does not specifically forbid; Hamilton
What is strict construction? And who supported it?
favoring that the federal government should do only what the Constitution specifically says it can do; Jefferson
Why did Washington and Congress want The Bank of the United States?
It helped make the U.S. economy more stable.
Who enacted a charter for the, Bank of the United States, the country's first national bank?