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Terms in this set (31)
What is the only type of research that can prove cause and effect?
What are the 3 main perspectives in sociology?
Functionalist-studies how different social institutions (such as families or health care) help keep society stable
Conflict-study social stratification-who's on the top, who's on the bottom
Symbolic interactionist-looking at small groups and the meaning people attach to interactions
Of the 3 main perspectives in sociology, which is macrosociology and which is microsociology?
Functionalism-macro-looks at society as a whole
Conflict-macro-looks at society as a whole
Symbolic interactionism-micro-looks at small groups What is your family of procreation?
The family you make as an adult, especially referring to children.
What is a master status?
The main status that defines you. If you have a physical handicap, to others who don't know you, that is your master status
What are social institutions?
Major institutions in society that keep it functioning, e.g. the economy, health care, the government, the criminal justice system, public schools, the family.
What are 3 patterns of residency for a couple?
Patrilocal-living with the husband's family
Matrilocal-living with the wife's family
Neolocal-living in a new location (residence) by themselves
What is social stratification?
Looking at what groups are on the top, what groups are in the middle and what groups are on the bottom in social ranking.
What is gender socialization?
Teaching children to do things associated with their gender roles in society
List 2 types of female genital mutilation and 2 risks of it.
1. clitoridectomy-removal of clitoris
2. genital infibulation-removal of clitoris and labia
1. bleeding to death
2. developing infection from surgery
What is social mobility?
The ability to move from one social class to another (e.g. poor to middle class or middle class to rich).
Can a person have more than one social status at a time?
Yes and they interact such gender, race and income level.
What is the range of income for people in the U.S. middle class?
$40,000-100,000 a year
What are dating scripts?
societal expectations about how each gender should behave in a romantic relationship.
Define homogamy and propinquity.
Homogamy-having a relationship with someone who is like ourselves in social status (e.g. age, race, SES)
We are more likely to date people who shared these characteristics with us.
What groups are the most likely to have cohabitated?
Males (by a small percentage), people from age 30-49, whites and blacks, and unmarried with children.
List a change in society that led to dating.
Urbanization led to jobs, income and leaving the home to date (instead of calling at the parent's house).
In research, what is secondary analysis?
Using data that has already been gathered, such as from a census.
What are 3 patterns of descent?
Patrilineal-through father's line
Matrilineal-through mother's line
Bilateral-through both lines
List 6 types of research.
Survey, in-depth interview, experiment, focus group, observational study, secondary analysis.
What is the difference between quantitative and qualitative research?
Quantitative -research that focuses on data that can be measured numerically
Qualitative-narrative description with words rather than numbers, such as in-depth interviews
What is the difference between polygyny and polyandry?
Polygyny-men can marry more than one wife
Polyandry-women can marry more than one husband
What are some changes in families in last 20 years?
People are marrying later, gender equality is more of a value, more people are cohabitating, laws have changed to include gay marriage
In addition to functionalism, conflict theory and symbolic interactionism,
what are 4 other theories used to study families?
Social exchange theory (believes that humans are rational actors and make decisions based on costs and benefits in relationships-(similar to economics)
Systems theory-looks at family as a system
Developmental theory-stages of development
Of the U.S. population of 319 million, how many live in poverty?
What is SES?
Socioeconomic status-whether one is poor, middle class or rich. It also includes education and occupation.
List 5 agents of socialization.
List the percent of the population each ethnic group makes up in the U.S.
Native American 1%
Define voluntary temporary singles, voluntary stable singles, involuntary temporary single, involuntary stable singles & give an example of each
voluntary temporary singles-unmarried adults who want to stay single because they are going to school or pursuing a career
voluntary stable singles-unmarried adults who want to be single
involuntary temporary singles—actively searching for a partner but can't find one
involuntary stable singles-expect to be single for life but don't want to be
What are possible outcomes for children in cohabitating relationships?
In general, the more committed the two adults in the relationship are to each other, the more they are committed to their kids. In terms of poverty, cohabitation may be better than single parenthood because there are more resources spent on children. Marriages, even second marriages devote more resources to kids than cohabitation.
What is a class difference in cohabitation?
People with less education or more likely to cohabitate and have children while cohabitating and less likely to be married.
What is the Defense of Marriage Act from 1996?
A law passed by the U.S. Congress that defines marriage as being between one man and one woman.
What Supreme Court decision made gay marriage illegal and how?
June 2015 Obergefell vs. Hodges ruled that state-held bans on gay marriage unconstitutional, violating due process and equal protection clauses of 14th Amendment
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