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Psychology Frequently Missed Questions
Terms in this set (77)
According to our lecturer, perception is ___________.
a series of inferences.
You may notice that the number of words in this item is just slightly different from that of the previous item. However, you won't detect a difference between the second and third edition of your heavy psychology textbook until the difference is proportional to the size of the textbook--thousands and thousands of words and many, many pages. You need fewer words to detect a change in a short text and many more words to detect a change in a fat textbook. This proportional relationship between the size of the original text and your ability to detect a change in it is an example of _____________.
An important source of false memories comes from
source monitoring confusion.
A right-handed split-brain patient is shown the image of a snow-covered pine tree in his left visual field and the image of chicken in his right visual field. When asked what he saw, the patient will respond:
"I saw a chicken"
Research on the relationship between cognition and language suggests that
some aspects of thinking are more vulnerable to language influence than others.
A police department uses lie-detector tests in criminal investigation. While scores on the lie-detector test are fairly consistent over time, judges and lawyers in court question whether the scores provided by the police department can be used to determine guilt in criminal cases. In this case, the judges and lawyers are questioning whether lie-detector results are _________________.
Which of the following indicates the strongest relationship between two variables?
A researcher studied the data from twenty five specific lakes in Minnesota and drew the general conclusion that Eurasian milfoil, a highly aggressive, non-native, aquatic plant, is causing serious environmental damage. As described in lecture, this researcher is using _____________________ to identify an issue of concern
What psychological school first identified that visual perception occurs in terms of whole objects rather than individual component parts?
As described in lecture, Hebb's rule is supported by the cellular phenomena of
Executives at Target want to use a personality inventory to screen job applicants for customer service positions. They want to select the inventory that best predicts behaviors such as honesty, friendliness, and dependability. Which of the following four inventories will be best for them?
High scores on Inventory D correlate -.73 with measures of honesty, friendliness, and dependability.
If a neurotransmitter is released, but it does not fit into a suitable receptor on the postsynaptic neuron _____________________________.
the firing potential of the postsynaptic neuron will not be affected
As described in lecture, the experimental tradition in psychology has developed from:
behaviorism to cognitive approaches to biological approaches.
The ________ heuristic is one that involves judging the probability of an event by its superficial similarity to a prototype.
An American accustomed to eating meals in a standard sequence of appetizers, salad, entree and dessert may be confused when trying to order a meal at an Italian restaurant where the menu contains l'antipasto, il primo, il secondo, il contorno and il dolce. The diner's confusion is caused by his or her unconscious knowledge structure or mental model , or ______________, of the sequence of a meal.
As discussed in lecture, a descriptive approach to problem solving:
uses syllogisms and mnemonics as aids to problem solving.
In which of the lobes of the cerebrum is the somatosensory cortex located?
A weak problem solving strategy such as forward chaining is an effective problem strategy when:
you can see all possible moves and can pick the one which will move you closer to your goal state.
A blind spot is a part of the visual field we can't see, where the __________ connects to the __________.
optic nerve; retina
The approach to psychology that emphasized the purpose of consciousness was ______________________.
The insulating material that encases some axons is referred to as the ______________,
In rating items as part of a winter survival activity, you were unable to see that a can of crisco had a variety of uses. The cap could be used as a crude mirror for signaling help. The grease would protect your skin against dehydration. The can could be used as a container to melt water. This difficulty in thinking of other uses for the can of Crisco illustrates the obstacle to problem solving known as _______________________.
Broca's area and Wernicke's area are located __________ of the brain which means that _________________________________.
on the left side...speech is localized on the left side of the brain.
Researchers studied the difference between expert and novices by asking expert chess players and novice players to memorize the position of playing pieces on a chessboard. In one condition, the pieces were placed at random and in the other the pieces were placed in positions that the pieces could have after many moves in a real game. The researchers found that
experts were able to reproduce the meaningful board better than novices but were no different from novices on the random board
As mentioned in lecture, life insurance rates are higher for teen-aged drivers because...?
The frontal cortex of adolescents is not yet mature.
Rats that have a damaged ________ will show no fear when placed next to a cat.
The Ames room, in which people are seen to get small or enlarge as they move about, demonstrates that our perception of the world depends strongly on ________________.
the assumptions we make about the world.
Dr. Alexander has developed a new drug that works as a stimulant. It is likely that this drug will ______________________.
increase activity in the central nervous system.
If you have difficulty understanding the meaning of someone's speech, you may suspect damage to your _____________.
As described in lecture, the duration of sensory memory is________________.
.5 to 3 seconds
Brian is a cross-country runner. He claims that he really enjoys running because he gets a wonderful "high" after running long distances. Since he knows you are taking a psychology class he asks you to explain what causes his "runner's high". You tell him that as he runs ________________________.
Endorphins block the chemicals that transmit pain to the brain.
A researcher gives you the following list of words to memorize: house, hill, chair, room, sea, dog, paper, bird, shoe, table, sidewalk, candle, mirror. Based on the serial position effect, you would be MOST likely to remember the word(s):
house and hill, because they come at the beginning of the list.
Vanessa describes a new melody that she heard at a concert by telling you each of the individual notes, in the order that they were played. In providing this type of description, it appears that Vanessa processed the melody using
Jake has been diagnosed with anxiety. A Psychoanalyst would attribute its origin to which of the following:
deep-seated conflicts in his unconscious mind.
As described in lecture, which of the following is an example of semantic memory?
Answering the question, "What kind of bird is black and white and lives in the Antarctic?"
An inhibitory signal reaches the dendrites of a post-synaptic neuron. What happens?
The cell becomes more negative, and a nerve impulse is less likely.
While completing a survey on media use, Psy 1001 students are asked to indicate how many hours they spent watching fifteen different cable TV stations (such as Fox News, MTV or Comedy Central) during the past six months. Based on what you have learned in Psy 1001, you may wonder whether researchers will obtain accurate data due to the distortion of self-report data caused by?
Drugs used to treat schizophrenia function as antagonists, meaning __________________________________.
they block dopamine from binding to receptor sites
A friend is telling you about her (rather boring) trip to Duluth. She talks about all the details and after a while you stop listening. Annoyed, she says, "Did you hear what I just said?" You do remember, but only the details from the last 3 seconds of her story. Memory for that information is being held in:
Which of the following individuals is likely to be at the highest level of sympathetic arousal?
Melissa, who is daydreaming and staring out the window
When studying Consciousness scientifically, Dr He spoke about the "hard" problem and the "easy" problem. According to him, third person data is ___________________________________.
easy because we know how to make the link from subjective experience to underlying neural activity.
Dr. Fletcher discussed the Linguistic Relativity hypothesis, which is also known as the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis. This hypothesis proposes:
language affects how we perceive, reason and remember.
John was robbed by a couple of thugs near the bike racks by Wilson Library. After that, he found that he was reluctant to walk there, preferring to navigate around the West Bank by using underground tunnels. In fact, just thinking about walking there made him feel anxious. It seems that space provokes anxiety in John through the learning process known as ___________________.
To answer a research question, psychologists might collect data from lots of people, then analyze it to find the trends that they have in common. In other words, they are using specific examples to determine a general rule. According to lecture, these psychologists are using what kind of reasoning?
In long-term memory, the ________ memory division does not require much effort or attention to recall information.
Marty is convinced that there are more ice cream cones sold in August than December, yet statistics tell us something different. Which heuristic may explain Marty's error?
The form of memory that sustains sensations long enough for identification is known as __________________ memory.
One reason that we are susceptible to the representativeness heuristic is that we
fail to consider how probable an outcome is within the general population.
At what age do babies typically start to comprehend words?
The linguistic relativity hypothesis predicts that
people should have difficulty thinking about things they cannot describe in words
As a neuron is stimulated and starts to receive information, the neuron's electrical charge
becomes less negative
If the occipital lobe of the brain is stimulated, a person would be most likely to report
seeing a flash of light
Recent research suggests that which of the following structures is involved in higher-order cognitive functions such as attention and planning?
An elderly person has a stroke that leaves her unable to talk and part of her body paralyzed. Which part of the body is MOST likely to be paralyzed?
In addition to its role in motor behavior, acetylcholine has been suggested to be involved in attention, arousal, learning, and memory, and its degeneration related to Alzheimer's disease. Given what you have learned about the brain, in what structure would you expect to find a high percentage of acetylcholine receptors?
When Jeffrey slipped on the stairs and hit his head, he saw "stars" for several minutes. The "stars" were most likely a result of activity in Jeffrey's
Kesha has begun taking a new drug named BXY79 that produces side effects like muscular rigidity and tremors. Based on this information, Kesha's drug may be an
antagonist for dopamine
The primary motor cortex is located in the
In carrying out the "fight or flight" response, the role of the supervisor is assigned to the
The primary visual cortex is located in the
The brain structure responsible for the coordination of motor movements and sense of equilibrium is the
Which of the following individuals is likely to be at the HIGHEST level of sympathetic arousal?
Bill, who is anticipating an exam he will take within the hour and for which he is unprepared
The minimum length of time between action potentials is determined by
the relative threshold period
In both split-brain people and neurologically intact people, the left hemisphere specializes in
The brain function that controls unconscious but essential functions such as breathing and circulation is the
The next time you have an itch on your foot, the itch sensation will be sensed in your ___ lobe and the ___ lobe will transmit the message to move your hand and arm to scratch the itch
If electrical stimulation of a brain structure results in an animal's eating constantly and gaining weight rapidly, the structure stimulated MOST likely is the
If a patient has severe damage to the prefrontal cortex, you would predict that he might also have difficulty
planning, paying attention, and getting organized
While the ___ nervous system is associated with conserving bodily resources, the ___ nervous system mobilizes the body's resources for emergencies
The structure that connects the two cerebral hemispheres is called the
Monique is not able to understand spoken language. If Monique's problem stems from damage to the cerebral cortex, the damage would MOST likely be in
an area known as Wernicke's area
Imagine that you have stumbled across a secret labratory where an evil scientist is conducting unauthorized brain research. By altering brain structures, he has created superheroes who have specialized powers or abilities. One of these superheroes has a fantastic memory and is able to remember new information almost instantly. In this case, one of the brain structures that the scientist MOST likely altered would be the
The hindbrain structure involved with sleep and arousal is the
Which of the following brain structures is MOST closely associated with the regulation of emotion?
Zeke has no problem understanding what other people say to him, but he has difficulty producing spoken language. If Zeke's problem stems from damage to the cerebral cortex, the damage would most likely be in
an area known as Broca's area
Which of the following parts of the brain is MOST likely to play a major role in the work of artists, architects, and engineers, who must rely heavily on visual-spatial skills?
The right hemisphere
Involved in mood, sleep, and appetite
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