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81 terms

*Immune SYSTEM

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Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?
they are composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains
Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens (also called human leukocyte associated, or HLA, antigens) are unique to each person's body cells. These self-antigens aid in the detection of foreign invaders. MHC class II antigens are found on
B-lymphocytes and some T-lymphocytes
and antigen-presenting cells
Which statement is true about T cells?
Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2
The antigenic determinant of a foreign substance is the
epitope
Antibody functions include all of the following except
cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood cell types are properly matched
The anaphylactic reaction is a(n) __________ allergic reaction.
immediate hypersensitivity
Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?
IgM has ten binding sites.
. Which of the following is a localized, nonspecific response to infection?
inflammation
Select the correct statement about complement.
A specific immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.
T lymphocytes develop in the bone marrow and attain immunologic competency in the
thymus
. Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disease?
a second exposure to an allergen
This is the predominant Ig class in body secretions; hence it is called the "secretory antibody.
IgA
Which type of antibodies can cross the placenta and confer passive immunity on the fetus/neonate?
IgG
Occurring as a pentamer, this is the first antibody to be produced.
IgM
Which type of antibodies are involved in allergic reactions?
IgE
Select the correct statement about antigens.
One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may thus cause the formation of more than one antibody
The formation of antigen-antibody complexes might trigger the complement cascade at C1. This is called the
classical pathway
The primary immune response
has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells
When a macrophage presents antigen to a lymphocyte, it does so in context of __________.
MHC
Select the correct statement about the role of the nervous system in regulating the immune response.
Many immune cells have receptors for neurotransmitters. and The ability of one's state of mind to influence immune function is now accepted as proven by the medical community.
Polio vaccine confers __________ on the subject.
active immunity
C3b molecules coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytose it. The phenomenon is called
opsonization
__________ T-cells destroy cells infected with virus.
cytotoxin
Plasma cells are derived from
B-lymphocytes
Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called
haptens
Although we mostly associate eosinophil function with allergic reactions, the cell was originally evolved to deal, most effectively, with
helminth infections
The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by
vasodialation
The chief antibody-mediated mechanism used against cellular antigens, such as bacteria, is
complement fixation
Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?
replaces injured tissues with connective tissue
Select the correct statement about phagocytic cells.
Neutrophils may destroy themselves when they phagocytize large quantities of a foreign substance.
Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?
type 11 diabetes
. ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.
Cytokineses
. Innate immune system defenses include
phagocytes
Select the correct statement about inflammation.
Exudate is the cause of localized edema
. B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by
producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells.
Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?
phagocytes
Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?
passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus
The antibody molecule is held together by ____ bonds.
disulfide
Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.
Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of specific immunity that use antibodies.
Which of the following is not a type of T cell?
antigenic
Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except
a. rabies.
b. juvenile diabetes.
c. pregnancy.
d. hepatitis.
pregnancy
Natural killer (NK) cells
can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated.
Helper T cells
function in the adaptive immune system activation.
B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the
bone marrow
The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the
immune system
______ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system be able to recognize and resist.
the type of antigen
. Interferons
interfere with viral replication within cells.
The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called
chemotaxis.
Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?
reactivity with an antibody
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.
cytokines
. ________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.
Macrophages
Phagocyte mobilization involves
mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas.
Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of the immune system by
natural killer cells.
Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.
Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders".
The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the
cytotoxic cells.
Fever
production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting.
Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self".
Tolerance is developed during fetal life
Interleukin ________ inhibits or turns down the immune response.
10
Cytotoxic T cells
are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells.
Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?
It is specific for a given organ.
Antibodies and complement fixation mediate delayed hypersensitivity reactions.
FALSE
Immune responses are sometimes not beneficial to the body
TRUE
. Some immunocompetent cells never be called to duty during our lifetime.
TRUE
The soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called antibodies.
TRUE
Autoimmune diseases are more common in men than women.
FALSE
The B lymphocyte population is capable of producing antibodies against at least 106 different antigens.
TRUE
Perforins are cytolytic molecules used by NK cells.
TRUE
Antigens can be complete or incomplete
TRUE
Tolerance for self-antigens is abnormal.
FALSE
The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis.
TRUE
Adaptive immunity is provided only by lymphocytes that secrete antibodies.
FALSE
Atopy is an inherited tendency to spontaneously develop immediate (type I) allergies to certain environmental antigens.
TRUE
The mechanism of the "lethal hit" of cytotoxic T cells involves a protein called perforin.
TRUE
Fever is seldom beneficial because it speeds up the cellular metabolic rate and will not allow antigen-antibody reactions to occur.
FALSE
cellular ingestion and destruction of particulate matter is called phagocytosis
TRUE
Monoclonal antibodies can be specific for several antigenic determinants
FALSE
Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune response are called antigens.
FALSE
Somatic recombination by B cells allows each B cell to form its own unique antibody genes.
FALSE
The respiratory burst produced by some macrophages releases free radicals.
TRUE
A transfusion reaction is a subacute hypersensitivity to foreign red blood cells.
TRUE
During fetal development, all lymphocytes that do not react to self-antigens are destroyed.
FALSE