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Which of the following is characteristic of antibodies?

they are composed of heavy and light polypeptide chains

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) antigens (also called human leukocyte associated, or HLA, antigens) are unique to each person's body cells. These self-antigens aid in the detection of foreign invaders. MHC class II antigens are found on

B-lymphocytes and some T-lymphocytes
and antigen-presenting cells

Which statement is true about T cells?

Their proliferation is enhanced by interleukins 1 and 2

The antigenic determinant of a foreign substance is the


Antibody functions include all of the following except

cross-linking cell-bound antigens on red blood cells when blood cell types are properly matched

The anaphylactic reaction is a(n) __________ allergic reaction.

immediate hypersensitivity

Which of the following is true about the number of binding sites per functional antibody unit?

IgM has ten binding sites.

. Which of the following is a localized, nonspecific response to infection?


Select the correct statement about complement.

A specific immune mechanism is often involved in directing complement to its target.

T lymphocytes develop in the bone marrow and attain immunologic competency in the


. Which of the following is not a mechanism for the development of autoimmune disease?

a second exposure to an allergen

This is the predominant Ig class in body secretions; hence it is called the "secretory antibody.


Which type of antibodies can cross the placenta and confer passive immunity on the fetus/neonate?


Occurring as a pentamer, this is the first antibody to be produced.


Which type of antibodies are involved in allergic reactions?


Select the correct statement about antigens.

One antigen may have many different antigenic determinants and may thus cause the formation of more than one antibody

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes might trigger the complement cascade at C1. This is called the

classical pathway

The primary immune response

has a lag period while B cells proliferate and differentiate into plasma cells

When a macrophage presents antigen to a lymphocyte, it does so in context of __________.


Select the correct statement about the role of the nervous system in regulating the immune response.

Many immune cells have receptors for neurotransmitters. and The ability of one's state of mind to influence immune function is now accepted as proven by the medical community.

Polio vaccine confers __________ on the subject.

active immunity

C3b molecules coat a microorganism and roughen its surface, enabling macrophages and neutrophils to phagocytose it. The phenomenon is called


__________ T-cells destroy cells infected with virus.


Plasma cells are derived from


Small molecules that bind with self-proteins to produce antigenic substances are called


Although we mostly associate eosinophil function with allergic reactions, the cell was originally evolved to deal, most effectively, with

helminth infections

The redness and heat of an inflamed area are due to a local hyperemia caused by


The chief antibody-mediated mechanism used against cellular antigens, such as bacteria, is

complement fixation

Which of the following is not a function of the inflammatory response?

replaces injured tissues with connective tissue

Select the correct statement about phagocytic cells.

Neutrophils may destroy themselves when they phagocytize large quantities of a foreign substance.

Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

type 11 diabetes

. ________ are released by activated T cells and macrophages to mobilize immune cells and attract other leukocytes into the area.


. Innate immune system defenses include


Select the correct statement about inflammation.

Exudate is the cause of localized edema

. B cells respond to the initial antigen challenge by

producing progeny cells that include plasma cells and memory cells.

Which of the following is a part of the second line of defense against microorganisms?


Which of the following is associated with passive immunity?

passage of IgG antibodies from a pregnant mother to her fetus

The antibody molecule is held together by ____ bonds.


Select the correct statement about active and passive immunity.

Active and passive humoral immunity are both mechanisms of specific immunity that use antibodies.

Which of the following is not a type of T cell?


Monoclonal antibodies are used for the diagnosis of all of the following except
a. rabies.
b. juvenile diabetes.
c. pregnancy.
d. hepatitis.


Natural killer (NK) cells

can kill cancer cells before the immune system is activated.

Helper T cells

function in the adaptive immune system activation.

B lymphocytes develop immunocompetence in the

bone marrow

The system that recognizes foreign molecules and acts to immobilize, neutralize, or destroy them is the

immune system

______ determine(s) what specific foreign substances our adaptive immune system be able to recognize and resist.

the type of antigen

. Interferons

interfere with viral replication within cells.

The process whereby neutrophils and other white blood cells are attracted to an inflammatory site is called


Which of the following is characteristic of complete antigens?

reactivity with an antibody

Toll-like receptors (TLRs) trigger the release of ________ to attract white blood cells to the scene.


. ________ predominate at the sites of chronic infections.


Phagocyte mobilization involves

mainly neutrophil and macrophage migration into inflamed areas.

Cancer cells and virus-infected body cells can be killed before activation of the immune system by

natural killer cells.

Select the correct statement about the function of antibodies.

Antibodies may directly destroy "invaders".

The only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells are the

cytotoxic cells.


production is regulated by chemicals that reset the body's thermostat to a higher setting.

Select the correct statement about the prevention of immune attack on "self".

Tolerance is developed during fetal life

Interleukin ________ inhibits or turns down the immune response.


Cytotoxic T cells

are the only T cells that can directly attack and kill other cells.

Which of the following is not characteristic of the adaptive immune system?

It is specific for a given organ.

Antibodies and complement fixation mediate delayed hypersensitivity reactions.


Immune responses are sometimes not beneficial to the body


. Some immunocompetent cells never be called to duty during our lifetime.


The soluble proteins secreted by plasma cells are called antibodies.


Autoimmune diseases are more common in men than women.


The B lymphocyte population is capable of producing antibodies against at least 106 different antigens.


Perforins are cytolytic molecules used by NK cells.


Antigens can be complete or incomplete


Tolerance for self-antigens is abnormal.


The directional movement of cells in response to chemicals is called chemotaxis.


Adaptive immunity is provided only by lymphocytes that secrete antibodies.


Atopy is an inherited tendency to spontaneously develop immediate (type I) allergies to certain environmental antigens.


The mechanism of the "lethal hit" of cytotoxic T cells involves a protein called perforin.


Fever is seldom beneficial because it speeds up the cellular metabolic rate and will not allow antigen-antibody reactions to occur.


cellular ingestion and destruction of particulate matter is called phagocytosis


Monoclonal antibodies can be specific for several antigenic determinants


Substances capable of triggering the adaptive immune system and provoking an immune response are called antigens.


Somatic recombination by B cells allows each B cell to form its own unique antibody genes.


The respiratory burst produced by some macrophages releases free radicals.


A transfusion reaction is a subacute hypersensitivity to foreign red blood cells.


During fetal development, all lymphocytes that do not react to self-antigens are destroyed.


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