World History 2 H Chapter 19
Terms in this set (84)
List and fully describe the 5 factors we discussed for Great Britain's becoming a birth place of the industrial revolution.
1. Agricultural practices became more efficient, producing more food at lower prices.
2. The enclosure movement of the 18th century caused many peasants to love to towns, increasing the labor supply.
3. The wealthy merchant class of Britain had a ready supply of capital to invest in the new industrial machines and factories. Entrepreneurs devised new business methods and ways to make profits.
4. Britain had plentiful natural resources, such as, water, coal, and iron ore.
5. Britain's vast colonial empire gave Britain manufacturers a ready outlet for goods.
New technological advances, such as the spinning jenny and flying shuttle, gave Britain an advantage in producing what?
Inexpensive cotton goods
What is the term used for a process to make high quality iron for the production of new machines, especially trains.
The steam engine was crucial to Britain's industrial revolution, leading to an expansion of what two industries?
Coal and Iron
The first commercial railroad connected the cotton-manufacturing town of ______________ to the port of _________________.
Manchester and Liverpool
Governments in Belgium, France, and the German states supported industrialization and provided funds to build what 3 items to help with travel?
Roads, Canals, and Railroads
When the industrial revolution spread to the U.S, thousands of miles old roads and canals were built to link what?
East to West
In 1807, what did Robert Fulton build which greatly improved transportation on the waterways?
First paddle wheel steamboat
What eventually provided most effective means for transportation?
Were women and children ,who worked in factories, paid as much, more, or less than male peers?
The rapid growth of cities led to what 3 unfortunate, negative things?
Overcrowding, disease, and poverty
Was the working class granted strong or weak protection from factory owners? Did the face danger or safe working conditions?
Little protection; danger
Why did women and children make up a significant portion of the labor force?
Due to their low wages
After the defeat of Napoleon, Great Britain, Austria, Prussia, and Russia met at what congress to restore peace and balance of Europe?
Congress of Vienna
Klemens Von Matternich of Vienna wanted to restore what form of government that had ruled prior to Napoleon?
The European powers divided the land to ensure what? They agreed to meet regularly in conferences know as what?
Political and military stability; concert of Europe
Most liberals wanted a written document outline their rights, similar to what document?
American bill of rights or constitution
Another force of change in the 19th century Europe was Nationalism. Nationalism arose when people began to clarify themselves based on what, name 4 of those?
Language, region, culture, religion, and customs
Why was nationalism a threat to conservatism?
Gave independence to Nationalistic groups that would be the balance of power established at the congress of Vienna.
Beginning when, did liberalism and nationalism lead to revolution in Europe?
Were Poland and Italy successful in overthrowing their regimes? Were France and Belgium successful?
Beginning in France in 1848, the spirit of revolution spread quickly over Europe, but were the uprisings largely suppressed?
The 38 independent states of the German States attempted to unify in what year? Were they successful or not when the first tried to unify?
What was Russia seeking which led them to invade Balkan provinces of Moldavia and Walachia?
Warm water parts
Who controlled these provinces and declared war on Russia?
Why did Great Britain and France then join in on fighting with Russia?
They were fearful of a stronger Russia
What caused Russia to pull out?
What treaty placed the provinces under international control?
Treaty of Paris (1856)
What was the effect of the Crimean war?
Concert of Europe was destroyed
Without Russia, Austria could no longer prevent what two countries from unifying?
Germany and Italy
In 1850, people looked to the northern kingdom of Piedmont to lead the unification of Italy. Piedmont was an alliance with what country for support?
What is the term for a reliance of military strength?
Germans looked to whom in the cause of German unification?
In the 1860s, Otto Von Bismark ran Prussia, did he do so with or without parliament? What were his 3 major accomplishments that we discussed in class?
Strengthened the army, collected taxes, and expanded info Denmark
In 1870, Prussia and France went to war. Who was victorious, and what two territories were they given because of their victory?
Alsace and Lorraine
What is German for, ceaser?
Was Great Britain able to avoid the revolutions of Europe?
In England, what did parliament do during the revolutions in the 18 hundreds so the middle class now had interest in ruling?
Expanded voting privileges
Did the industrial revolution allow the wages of workers to rise significantly? What effect did it have on their prosperity?
They were able to share it
Queen Victoria reflected the nationalist pride of British citizens, what years did she rule between?
1837 to 1901
In France, Louis-Napoleon asked the French people for the restoration of the empire through a plebiscite. What is a plebiscite? What was the outcome of this plebiscite?
97% of the people wanted an emperor
Napoleon III ruled an authoritarian government, did he promote or relax civil liberties?
How did Napoleon III expand the economy in France?
With government subsides and infrastructure improvements
What 4 ways did Napoleon III rebuild Paris?
With boulevards, public squares, underground sewers, and street lights
Did Napoleon III give the legislature more power?
Yes, to some of his Economic problems
Why was nationalism a problem for the Austrian Empire?
It made different ethnic groups
The compromise of 1867 created a dual Monarchy of Austria-Hungry. Each component would have their own constitution, legislator, and capital. What was the capital for each respectively, and what were the held together by?
Held together by shared monarch, army, and financial system
After being defeated in the Crimean War, Russia realized it had to do what?
Russia was a large, agricultural society that depended on the authority of the what to function as a European power?
Czar Alexander II decided to intact reforms and, in 1861 issues emancipation edict freeing the serfs. Did this improve their lives?
Alexander II's other reforms led to his assassination in 1801. His son, Alexander III took over. Did he son return to old methods of repression of continue policies of freedom?
Methods of repression
In the U.S., the first decade of the 1800's, what two political parties struggled over political control of our country?
Federalists and Republicans
Victory in what war ended these divisions and gave Americans a surge in nationalistic pride?
War of 1812
In the middle of the 19th century, what became the biggest threat to American political and social systems?
What is the term for a movement to end slavey?
South Carolina voted to secede with the election of whom, on what year?
Abe Lincoln; 1860
Six more states joined then and formed what?
Confederate states do America
What years did the American civil war last between?
What was the ideal form of expression to Romantics?
Darwin's inclusion of whom in his theory was very controversial?
Who showed the realities of life in London for the poor and unappreciated in his Novels, Oliver Twist and David Copper field?
First practical steam locomotive.
First electric light
First large scale smallpox vaccination
Invention of Battery
Invention of stethoscope
Vocabulary. In Great Britain during the 1700s, the Parliamentary decree that allowed fencing off of common lands, forcing many peasants to move to town
Vocabulary. money available for investment
Vocabulary. a person interested in finding new business opportunities and new ways to make profits
Vocabulary. a method of production in which tasks are done by individuals in their rural homes
Vocabulary. an economic system based on industrial production or manufacturing
Vocabulary. a system in which society, usually in the form of the government, owns an controls the means of production
Vocabulary. a political philosophy based on tradition and social stability, favoring
obedience to political authority and organized religion
Vocabulary. idea that great powers have the right to send armies into countries where there are revolutions to restore legitimate governments
Principle of intervention
Vocabulary. a political philosophy originally based largely on Enlightenment principles, holding that people should be as free as possible from government restraint and that civil liberties—the basic rights of all people—should be protected
Vocabulary. the right of all males to vote in elections
Universal male suffrage
Vocabulary. a state in which people of many nationalities live
Vocabulary. an intellectual movement that emerged at the end of the eighteenth century in reaction to the ideas of the Enlightenment; it stressed feelings, emotion, and imagination as sources of knowing
Vocabulary. indifference to or rejection of religion or religious consideration
Vocabulary. the principle set forth by Charles Darwin that every plant or animal has evolved, or changed, over a long period of time from earlier, simpler forms of life to more complex forms
the principle set forth by Charles Darwin that some organisms are more adaptable to the environment than others; in popular terms, "survival of the fittest"
What famous book did Darwin write?
On the origins of species by means of natural selection
Vocabulary. mid-nineteenth-century movement that rejected romanticism and sought to portray lower- and middle-class life as it actually was
Please fully describe all the social changes that occurred because of industrialization.
Before Industrial Revolution
- Agricultural work on farms and in homes predominated; cottage industry took place in homes.
- Most people lived in rural areas
- Single workers or families produced an entire product
During and After Industrial Revolution
- Manufacturing predominated, with workers placed in factories; cottage industry declined or disappeared
- Workers migrated to work in city factories, causing explosive growth, overcrowding, and filthy conditions
- factories practiced division of labor. Each worker performed one task in the production process. These tasks were often repetitive and boring
- factory work required long hours under harsh working conditions
- child labor occurred on a large scale. Women and children were usually paid lower wages.