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12 Human Body Systems


Integumentary System

FUNCTION: covers and protects body
EX: skin, hair, nails

Skeletal System

FUNCTION: production of blood cells, body support and movement, and protection for some organs
EX: bones, cartilage, joints

Muscular System

FUNCTION: body movement, facial expressions, and generation of body heat
EX: biceps, lats, glutes, etc., sheets of tissue making up the walls of hollow organs, special tissue making up the heart

Excretory System

FUNCTION: removes waste from body and regulates chemical makeup of blood
EX: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, skin, liver, lungs

Endocrine System

FUNCTION: body control system that works using hormones that affect target tissues
EX: pineal gland, pancreas, thyroid gland, testes, ovaries, pituitary gland and more

Nervous System

FUNCTION: detecting stimuli in the internal and external environments and bringing about a response
EX: brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory structures

Respiratory System

FUNCTION:exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; taking in oxygen to supply cells and eliminating carbon dioxide produced by cells
EX: lungs, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, diaphragm

Circulatory System

FUNCTION: transports nutrients and oxygen to cells, transports wastes away from cells
EX: heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood

Digestive System

FUNCTION:ingests food, breaks it down into nutrients for absorption, and eliminates solid waste
EX: stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder, pancreas

Reproductive System

FUNCTION:produces new offspring
EX: ovaries, testes, genitalia

Lymphatic System

FUNCTION: part of the immune system; supports the circulatory system by returning fluid from tissues to the circulatory system
EX: lymph, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels

Immune System

FUNCTION: defends the body against infections and cancer
EX: lymph nodes, thymus, spleen

4 types of tissues


Epithelial Tissue

-forms coverings or linings of organs
-form endocrine and exocrine glands

Connective Tissue

-binds the cells and the organs of the body together
-3 types: -cartilage

Muscular Tissue

-cells can contract- they get shorter when contract
-skeletal(voluntary):striated, long, cylindrical, many nuclei per cell
-cardiac(involuntary):striated, one nucleus per cell
-smooth(involuntary):not striated, one nucleus per cell

Nervous Tissue

-nerve cells: neurons- they conduct impulses or messages

Epiphyses(long bone)

they provide attachment for muscles

Diaphysis(long bone)

provides support without too mush weight b/c it is hollow

articular cartilage(long bone)

cushions joints

periosteum(long bone)

-attaches tendon to bone
-contains bone forming and destroying cells
-contains blood vessels important in bone growth and repair

epiphyseal line(long bone)

permit growth in length of bones when cartilage cells divide (growth plate)

compact bone(long bone)

type of bone tissue characterized by cylinder shaped structural units called osteons

spongy bone(long bone)

-does not contain osteons; has lots of spaces
-reduces weight of bone
-spaces contain red marrow

medullary cavity(long bone)

-space in middle of long bone that contains marrow and nutrient arteries

yellow marrow(long bone)

-stores energy
-replaces red marrow as we get older

red marrow(long bone)

-produces blood cells


production of blood cells


connect bone to bone in a joint


connect the muscle to bone

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