31 terms

Human Body Systems Organs and Functions

12 Human Body Systems
Integumentary System
FUNCTION: covers and protects body
EX: skin, hair, nails
Skeletal System
FUNCTION: production of blood cells, body support and movement, and protection for some organs
EX: bones, cartilage, joints
Muscular System
FUNCTION: body movement, facial expressions, and generation of body heat
EX: biceps, lats, glutes, etc., sheets of tissue making up the walls of hollow organs, special tissue making up the heart
Excretory System
FUNCTION: removes waste from body and regulates chemical makeup of blood
EX: kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, urethra, skin, liver, lungs
Endocrine System
FUNCTION: body control system that works using hormones that affect target tissues
EX: pineal gland, pancreas, thyroid gland, testes, ovaries, pituitary gland and more
Nervous System
FUNCTION: detecting stimuli in the internal and external environments and bringing about a response
EX: brain, spinal cord, nerves, sensory structures
Respiratory System
FUNCTION:exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide; taking in oxygen to supply cells and eliminating carbon dioxide produced by cells
EX: lungs, trachea, bronchi, alveoli, diaphragm
Circulatory System
FUNCTION: transports nutrients and oxygen to cells, transports wastes away from cells
EX: heart, arteries, veins, capillaries, blood
Digestive System
FUNCTION:ingests food, breaks it down into nutrients for absorption, and eliminates solid waste
EX: stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder, pancreas
Reproductive System
FUNCTION:produces new offspring
EX: ovaries, testes, genitalia
Lymphatic System
FUNCTION: part of the immune system; supports the circulatory system by returning fluid from tissues to the circulatory system
EX: lymph, lymph nodes, lymphatic vessels
Immune System
FUNCTION: defends the body against infections and cancer
EX: lymph nodes, thymus, spleen
4 types of tissues
Epithelial Tissue
-forms coverings or linings of organs
-form endocrine and exocrine glands
Connective Tissue
-binds the cells and the organs of the body together
-3 types: -cartilage
Muscular Tissue
-cells can contract- they get shorter when contract
-skeletal(voluntary):striated, long, cylindrical, many nuclei per cell
-cardiac(involuntary):striated, one nucleus per cell
-smooth(involuntary):not striated, one nucleus per cell
Nervous Tissue
-nerve cells: neurons- they conduct impulses or messages
Epiphyses(long bone)
they provide attachment for muscles
Diaphysis(long bone)
provides support without too mush weight b/c it is hollow
articular cartilage(long bone)
cushions joints
periosteum(long bone)
-attaches tendon to bone
-contains bone forming and destroying cells
-contains blood vessels important in bone growth and repair
epiphyseal line(long bone)
permit growth in length of bones when cartilage cells divide (growth plate)
compact bone(long bone)
type of bone tissue characterized by cylinder shaped structural units called osteons
spongy bone(long bone)
-does not contain osteons; has lots of spaces
-reduces weight of bone
-spaces contain red marrow
medullary cavity(long bone)
-space in middle of long bone that contains marrow and nutrient arteries
yellow marrow(long bone)
-stores energy
-replaces red marrow as we get older
red marrow(long bone)
-produces blood cells
production of blood cells
connect bone to bone in a joint
connect the muscle to bone