Biomolecules VCE Unit 3
Terms in this set (67)
A naturally occurring condensation polymer contains carbon, hydrogen and oxygen that has a general formula Cx(H2O)y
C H O
C H O N S
A specific shaped protein
A bond between two amino acids
Primary structure - proteins
Involves making the chain of a amino acids
Secondary structure - proteins
Involves the attraction between oh groups and the folding pleating or spiralling of the amino acid chains
Tertiary structure - proteins
The final stage which the 3D arrangement become specific for the use of enzymes
The molecule that enters the active site of the enzyme to be catalysed
Essential amino acids
Amino acids that you need in your diet as the body cannot make them
A single sugar molecule eg. Glucose
A molecule formed by many sugars eg. glycogen
An analgesic commonly known as aspirin
The location on an enzymes surface at which Rea Gino occurs. It is usually a flexible hollow or cavity in the molecule.
A base found in nuclei acids such as DNA it is the complementary base of thymine
Alpha amino acid
An amino acid that has its amino, carboxyl and R groups attached to one central carbon atom. Also known 2- amino acid
Another name for an alpha amino acid
A drug that relieves pain
A chemical used to treat infectious diseases in humans and animals
A common drug used to treat pain, fever, inflammation and reduce blood clotting. Also known as acetylsalicylic acid
100% biodiesel fuel
Pairs of complementary bases found in DNA eg. A and t g and c
Bio chemical fuel
A fuel produced from biomass, eg. From a plant, animal or microorganism source.
A bio chemical fuel made from vegetable oils or animal fats that can be used in place if disallowed from petroleum. They contain ester functional group so are known as bioesters
A fuel derived from l,a t animal or microbial material, eg. Bioethicist, biodiesel. The are considered renewable energy sources
Combustible gas that is produced from the decay of organic matter in the absence of oxygen.
A carbohydrate found in the cell walls of plants. It is a polysaccharide formed by the condensation reaction of glucose
A Lipid found in animals that is involved in the synthesis of a number of hormones
A threadlike strand of DNA, found in the nucleus of most cells
Clumping of denatured protein molecules to form a suspension
Complementary base pairing
The formation of hydrogen bonds, between the base pairs A and T or C and G, in the two strands of the DNA double helix
Proteins that in combination provide the essential amino acids required for a healthy diet
The formation of a polymer by condensation reactions
A reaction in which two molecules link together, eliminating a small molecule such as water.
A medium for growing bacteria
A base found in nucleic acids such as DNA. It is the complementary base of guanine
A change to the structure and shape of a preteen that prevents it from functioning.
A five carbon sugar that is a constituent of DNA.
A nucleic acid that carries genetic information in the cells of plants and animals. Each strand is formed by a condensation polymerisation reaction between nucleotide monomers.
A fuel consisting of hydrocarbon molecule of chain length C13 - C25
A carbohydrate Mae from a condensation reaction between two monosaccharide molecules
A bond between two sulphur atoms that forms a link between differ parts of a protein chain, influencing the tertiary structure of the protein
The secondary structure of DNA, in which two strands wind around each other
A protein molecule that acts as a catalyst for reaction in living things
Essential amino acids
Nine amino acids that cannot be manufactured by the human body are required for protein formation. They must be provided directly from food
A two carbon member of the Albania homologous series; found in alcoholic drinks
A nutrient group composed of triglyceride molecules formed by the reaction of glycerol and fatty acids. Describes triglycerides that are solid, rather than liquid, at room temperature.
A carboxylic acid composed of molecules with long hydrocarbon chains.
The breakdown of sugar solutions, by the action if enzymes in yeasts, into ethanol and carbon dioxide
The particular form in which a drug is administered. Eg. Tablets, injection
The deliberate alteration of part of the DNA of an organism so as to introduce desired characteristics
An alcohol containing three OH groups. Forms a fat molecule when reacted with 3 fatty acids.
A carbohydrate that is means of storing glucose in animals
A C-O-C link formed when two monosaccharides combine to form a disaccharide.
A functional group that consists of an oxygen linking two hydrocarbons or sugars.
A base found in nucleic acids such as DNA. It is the complementary base of cytosine
A reaction where water is a reactant
A hormone that regulates the level of glucose in the body. This small protein is composed of 51 amino acids
A class of nutrients made up of naturally occurring fats and oils that are esters of fatty acids
The simplest type of carbohydrate. A single sugar, formula C6H12O6
A fat made from fatty acids that contains only one carbon to carbon double bond.
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
A type of pharmaceutical that acts as acts as a mild, non addictive analgesic
The monomers of DNA, consisting of a phosphate group, deoxyribose sugar and a base
A mixture of hydrocarbons that is used as a source of chemicals and fuel. Describes a triglyceride that I'd a liquid at room temperature.
A group of antibacterial drugs developed from moulds and which all contain a particular structural unit.
A CONH functional group between amino acid units in poly peptides and proteins. Also called the amide group.
A phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms that is also bonded to deoxyribose in DNA