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Terms in this set (28)
Actus reus (pronounced ak-tus ray-uhs)
A guilty (prohibited) act. The commission of a prohibited act is one of the two essential elements required for criminal liability, the other element being the intent to commit a crime.
The malicious burning of another's dwelling.
Some statutes have expanded this to include any real property regardless of ownership and the destruction of property by other means;
for example, by explosion.
Beyond a reasonable doubt
The standard used to determine the guilt or innocence of a person criminally charged. To be guilty of a crime, one must be proved guilty beyond and to the exclusion of every reasonable doubt. A reasonable doubt is one that would cause a prudent person to hesitate before acting in matters important to him or her.
The unlawful entry into a building with the intent to commit a felony. (Some state statutes expand this to include the intent to commit any crime.)
A wrong against society proclaimed in a statute and punishable by society through fines and/or imprisonment or, in some cases, death.
A crime that occurs online, in the virtual community of the Internet, as opposed to the physical world.
A situation occurring when a person is tried twice for the same criminal offense; prohibited by the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution.
Unlawful pressure brought to bear on a person, causing the person to perform an act that he or she would not otherwise perform.
The fraudulent appropriation of money or other property by a person to whom the money or property has been entrusted.
In criminal law, a defense in which the defendant claims that he or she was induced by a public official usually an undercover agent or police officer to commit a crime that he or she would otherwise not have committed.
In criminal procedure, a rule under which any evidence that is obtained in violation of the accused's constitutional rights guaranteed by the Fourth, Fifth, and Sixth Amendments, as well as any evidence derived from illegally obtained evidence, will not be admissible in court.
A crime, such as arson, murder, rape, or robbery that carries the most severe sanctions, usually ranging from one year in a state or federal prison to the forfeiture of one's life.
The fraudulent making or altering of any writing in a way that changes the legal rights and liabilities of another.
A group of citizens called to decide, after hearing the state's evidence, whether a reasonable basis (probable cause) exists for believing that a crime has been committed and whether a trial ought to be held.
The act of stealing another's identifying information such as a name, date of birth, or Social Security number and using that information to access the victim's financial resources.
A charge by a grand jury that a reasonable basis (probable cause) exists for believing that a crime has been committed and that a trial should be held.
A formal accusation or complaint (without an indictment) issued in certain types of actions (usually criminal actions involving lesser crimes) by a law officer, such as a magistrate.
The wrongful taking and carrying away of another person's personal property with the intent to permanently deprive the owner of the property.
Some states classify larceny as either grand or petit, depending on the property's value.
Mens rea (pronounced mehns ray-uh)
Criminal intent. A wrongful mental state, which is as necessary as a wrongful act, to establish criminal liability. What constitutes a guilty mental state varies according to the wrongful action. Thus, for murder, the mens rea is the intent to take a life. For theft, the mens rea must involve both the knowledge that the property belongs to another and the intent to deprive the owner of it.
A lesser crime than a felony, punishable by a fine or imprisonment for up to one year in other than a state or federal penitentiary.
Falsely reporting income that has been obtained through criminal activity as income obtained through a legitimate business enterprise in effect, laundering the dirty money.
In criminal law, a defense against liability; (under Section 3.02 of the Model Penal Code), this defense is justifiable if the harm or evil sought to be avoided by a given action is greater than that sought to be prevented by the law defining the offense charged.
In criminal law, the least serious kind of criminal offense, such as a traffic or building-code violation.
Online fraud in which criminals pretend to be legitimate companies by using e-mails or malicious Web sites that trick individuals and companies into providing useful information, such as bank account numbers, Social Security numbers, and credit card numbers.
The process by which a criminal defendant and the prosecutor in a criminal case work out a mutually satisfactory disposition of the case, subject to court approval; usually involves the defendant's pleading guilty to a lesser offense in return for a lighter sentence.
The act of forcefully and unlawfully taking personal property of any value from another; force or intimidation is usually necessary for an act of theft to be considered a robbery.
The legally recognized privilege to protect one's self or property against injury by another. The privilege of self-defense protects only acts that are reasonably necessary to protect one's self or property.
Nonviolent crime committed by individuals or corporations to obtain a personal or business advantage.
Landlord's duty re: Condition of Leased Premises
How can a CSI determine the directions of travel of a perpetrator based on bloodstain evidence
The oldest forensic laboratory in the United States is that of the:
The purpose of the Department of Homeland Security is to coordinate and share information between which entities?
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