180 terms

personality 2

___ is inherited personality traits present at birth
that fact that temperaments are present early in life supports the idea that they are ___ based
of the big five personality traits, neuroticism relates to the ____/avoidance temperament
of the big five personality traits, extraversion relates to the ____/approach temperament
of the big five personality traits, agreeableness relates to the ____ temperament
of the big five personality traits, openness relates to the _____ temperament
of the big five personality traits, conscientiousness relates to the ______ temperament
environmental twin
the way to tell if temperaments were caused by the genetics or the environment would be by seeing if there was a lack of time for ___ influences and conducting ___ studies
people gravitate to ____ that suit their interests and let them be who they are, but maybe those (same word) even induce people to develop more of what led them there
nonshared environmental
the ____ ____ effect is that the environment seems to affect personality mostly by making twins different: different friends, siblings in families develop roles that play off each other
when correlations between MZ twins on temperament are ___, it means temperaments are more genetically based
self reports of twins on the big 5 personality/temperaments show that MZ twins have ___ correlations than DZ twins. there are similar correlations with observer reports
twin study
the ___ ___ method is a method to study widely behavioral genetics which take advantage of two unusual reproductive events, which produce two types of twins
activity level
one dimension of individual differences is ___ ___: the person's overall output of energy. Vigor is intensity, tempo is its speed. People high in this prefer high intensity, fast paced activities and low is opposite
one dimension of individual differences is ___: the tendency to prefer being with other people rather than being alone
one dimension of individual differences is ___: the tendency to become emotionally aroused - easily and intensely - in upsetting situations
genetically environmentally
In adoption studies, if child correlates with their biological parents, the trait is ___ based but if they correlate with their adopted parents, it is ____ based
the _____ theory is the study of the biological basis of social behavior
adaption shows that social interaction patterns are products of ____ and were retained genetically because at some point in the prehistory they conferred an adaptive advantage
inclusive fitness
____ ___ is the idea that genes are helped into the next generation by anything that helps your part of the gene pool reproduce
____ is acting for the welfare of others, to the point of sacrificing one's own wellbeing for someone else. Helps to still pass on your genetic makeup
reciprocal altruism
___ ___ is when one person helps the other in the expectation that the help will be returned
the ____ theory states that a gene survives by an action that brings about reproduction of any organism in which copies of the gene exists
____ mating is the idea that people chose mates on the basis of particular characteristics
____ have greater investment in offspring, generate few offspring, are choosier in mate selection, wait for the best mate, look for wealth, power, and status and view mate as a success object
___ have less investment in offspring, generate more offspring, less discriminating in mate selection, maximize sexual opportunities, look for fertility, youth, and fitness, and view mates as sex objects
_____ get jealous because of emotional bonds - limited to carry offspring, need those resources from the mate more than sex once baby is born. more jealous about emotional bonds than sex
____ get jealous because of sexual infidelity - they want to make sure the baby is theirs
an objection to evolutionary psychology is that it takes many _____ to determine whether a behavior has contributed to evolutionary fitness
an objection to evolutionary psychology is that a specific behavior cannot be ____ for all environments/sexes/ages/species
an objection to evolutionary psychology is that it does not explain the development of new ___ behavior or maintenance of successful (same word) environment
an objection to evolutionary psychology is the social science model, stating we are all ____ slates
an objection to evolutionary psychology is that there are ____ behaviors in cultures like murder and suicide
____ evolution is a very slow process that occurs over millennia. prepared us to live in a world very different from he one we live in now
___ evolution is a faster evolutionary process, there are problems that emerge when behavioral tendencies that have been built as part of human nature conflict with this
an objection to evolutionary psychology is that there has been little focus on behavioral _____
___ has 3 genotypes that react differently to rejection - 1 reacts very extremely (genotype 3)
according to Eysenck's biological processes and personality, ____ have a higher baseline and higher cortical arousal, therefore they avoid social interaction because it gets them overstimulated
according to Eysenck's biological processes and personality, _____ have a lower baseline and lower cortical arousal, therefore seek stimulation to bring up their arousal
behavioral activation system
the ___ ___ ___ is in the left prefrontal lobe and is the reward seeking system
behavioral activation system
the ___ ___ ___ regulates positive emotions and is only activated when people pursue something they want
people with reactive ___ systems are highly sensitive to incentives or cues of good things about to happen
_____ is a neurotransmitter that is high in the behavioral activation system. Higher amounts are related to positive emotionality, novelty seeking and extraversion
bursts of ___ happen in response to reward increases, increasing the learning of approach responses and dips after nonreward increases the learning of avoidance responses. May be more performance than actual learning, mainly about motivation
behavioral inhibition system
the ____ ___ ___ is in the right prefrontal lobe and is known as the avoidance system
behavioral inhibition system
the ___ ___ ___ regulates negative emotions, punishment and danger. is activated when people need to avoid something they fear. it inhibits movement. related to learning negative outcomes
behavioral inhibition system
if you have an active ___ ___ ___ you will be more avoidant and fearful
gaba serotonin norepinephrine
the neurotransmitters involved in the behavioral inhibition system are ____ (linked to neuroticism and panic disorders), ___, and _____ (produced in response to stress)
people high in neuroticism have ___ gray matter in the left cortex than people low in neuroticism. Stronger in males than females
depressed people have ____ gray matter in the amygdala. seems to happen before the onset of depression
for ____ the left cortex responds to positive emotions more than right cortex response to negative emotions
for ___ the right cortex responds to negative emotions more than left cortex responds to positive emotions
____ sensation seekers are in search of new, varied, and exciting experiences. they more likely to use drugs, increase alcohol use over time, do high risks sports, engage in risky antisocial behaviors
people ____ in sensation seeking should functions well in overstimulating conditions but they may display antisocial qualities in situation that are less demanding
people ___ in sensation seeking are better adapted to most circumstances of life, but they may shut down psychological when things get too intense
impulsive unsocialized sensation seeking
___ ___ ___ ___ is the capacity (or lack there of) to inhibit behavior in service of social adaption
effortful control
__ __ is being focused and restrained, and implies planfulness and awareness of others' needs
monoamine oxidase
____ ___ helps regulate several neurotransmitters. Its levels are related to personality traits such as sensation seeking, novelty seeking, dominance, aggression, drinking and driving and impulsivity
lower levels of ___ lead to fighting and assault, domestic violence, and impulsive aggression. higher levels lead to higher conscientiousness
behavioral inhibition system
anxiety has high __ ___ __ functioning. the avoidance system creates anxiety in the presence of cues and impending punishment. a person with a very sensitive threat system will experience anxiety easily and frequently
behavioral inhibition system behavioral activation system
depression has high ___ __ __ functioning. some researchers see depression as a variant of anxiety, reflecting an oversensitive avoidance system. there is also evidence of a weak ___ ___ __ because there is little motivation to approach incentives
behavioral activation system behavioral inhibition system
in antisocial personality disorder there is too high ___ __ ___ functioning and too low __ __ __. so they pursue whatever incentive comes to mind and fail to learn from punishment or aren't motivated to avoid it. linked to they system that underlies impulsiveness and sensation seeking. possible that there is insufficient MAO, but only if maltreated while growing up
the ___ level of the mind is how you think, logical thinking, and reasoning; anything you're aware of
the ___ level of the mind involves memory. something you are not aware of but if someone asks you about it you can bring it to your conscious level
the ___ level of the mind is the portion of the mind that is not directly assessable to our awareness. It is the source of desires and as repository for urges, feelings, and ideas that are tied to anxiety, conflict, and pain
the ___ is the original part of personality. all the inherited, instinctive, primitive aspects of personality. functions in the unconscious. involves the pleasure principle and the primary process
pleasure principle
the __ ___ is the idea that all needs need to be satisfied immediately. you'll do whatever you can to get the pleasure object. unsatisfied needs create aversive tension states
primary process
the ___ ___ is the forming of an unconscious mental image of an object or event that would satisfy the need
wishful fulfillment
___ ___ is the experience of imagining an object to fulfill need
the ___ evolves out of the id and harnesses some of the id's energy for its own use. it makes sure the id's impulses are expressed effectively by taking into account the external world. it appears in all levels of consciousness, but mostly in conscious and preconscious. has no moral sense
the goal of the ___ is to delay the discharge of the id's tension until an appropriate object or context is found
reality principle
the ___ ___ takes into account external reality along with internal needs and urges
secondary process
the ___ ____ is matching the unconscious image of the id's tension and reducing the object to a real object
____ is part of the secondary process, it is matching an image from the id with a real object from the real world
reality testing
___ ___ is part of the secondary process, it is the capacity for realistic thought which allow the ego to form plans of action to satisfy needs and test the plans mentally to see whether they will work
the _____ embodies values (especially the relationship with parents). it is the last to develop and operates on all three levels: tries to prevent any id impulse that would be frowned on by one's parents, tries to force the ego to act morally rather than rationally, tries to guide the person toward perfection in thought, word and deed
____ are the idea of incorporating the values from your parents/society into your own psyche
___ is part of your superego. it is the sense of right and wrong, comprises rules about what behaviors the parents disapprove of and punish
ego ideal
the __ __ is part of your superego. it says what you should do, comprises rules for good behavior and standards of excellence
balancing forces requires a lot of ____ strength because of it's ability to be effective despite conflicts of life
ego superego
the ___ is responsible for balancing reality, id impulses and the ___ is responsible for making that happen in a way that leads to fulfillment
___ is neither created nor destroyed and people are complex (same word) systems
biological psychological
there are two basic elements to drives/instincts: a ____ need state and a ____ representation
the ___ model states that if you are trying to prevent a drive from being expressed it only creates more pressure toward its expression
life sexual
__ or ___ drives (eros) are a set of drives that deal with survival, reproduction and pleasure
___ drives (thanatos) and drives that deal with aggression. it states that an unconscious part of us wants to die. these instincts are usually held back by life instincts
___ is the idea of investing energy to satisfy a need
___ is the idea of releasing emotion tension because needs are satisfied. engaging in aggression should reduce tension because the aggressive urge is no longer being bottled up. because this act dissipates the urge's energy the person should be less likely to be aggressive again in the future
ego cathexes
___ ___ is the idea of investing energy in an activity chosen by the ego
____ is the idea of investing energy in suppressing an id impulse
___ is a warning to the ego that something bad is going to happen
___ anxiety is the anxiety of some immediate threat from the real world. ex. getting run down by a train. has nothing to do with id, ego or superego
___ anxiety is the anxiety of fear of punishment resulting from id getting out of control
___ anxiety is the anxiety of fear of violating moral or ethical groups. rises from the superego
___ is the central mechanism of defense, it is an unconscious act of forcing something out of consciousness. a certain amount of energy is available to the ego to keep unacceptable impulses out of consciousness
___ repression is the repression of an id impulse that makes you uncomfortable. ex. you're a waiter and a person is pissing you off and you want to punch them
repression proper
__ __ is repression toward a painful memory/experience. something you did or something that was done to you
____ is consciously forcing things out of your conscious
___ repression is when you repress things partially
____ are mistakes that we make in lives for conscious reasons. ex. freudian slips or forgetting
____ is the refusal to believe an event took place or a condition exists. it resembles repression and deals with threats from other sources
____ is the ascription of unacceptable impulses, desires, or qualities to someone else. it provides a way to hide your knowledge of a disliked aspect of yourself will still expressing that quality
____ is finding a reason/excuse for a behavior done for unacceptable reasons
_____ is thinking in a cold, analytical, or detached way about things that normally evoke distress, common in those who have experienced trauma
____ shifts impulse from one target to another. often happens when the intended target is threatening and substitutes a less threatening target for the original and reduces anxiety
____ transforms the impulse into a more socially acceptable form. anxiety goes down when a transformed impulse is expressed instead of the initial one. keeps problems from occurring, rather than functioning after anxiety
___ is when too much energy gets permanently invested in a stage
in the __ stage the mouth is the key erogenous zone and pleasure comes from tasting, licking and sucking
the oral ___ stage is a helpless/dependent stage. If the infant experiences a helpful world, traits such as optimism and trust emerge. if not supportive world, pessimism and mistrust evolve. if too helpful, develop strong dependency on others
the oral ___ phase has sexual pleasure come from biting and chewing. determines if an infant will be verbally aggressive later on
___ characteristics are concerned with getting support from others and doing things that ease interaction with other people
in the __ stage, the anus is the erogenous zone and pleasure comes from defecating. it is the first time external constraints are systematically imposed on infants' satisfaction of internal urges. if emphasis is on praise, child will be productive and creative. if emphasis is on punishment there are two options: if child is rebellious, they will have a set of anal expulsive traits. if child is compliant, they will try to withhold excrement and develop anal retentive traits (ocd)
in the __ stage, the genital organs are the erogenous zone. sexual pleasures are autoertotic. there is the Oedipus/electra complex, castration anxiety, identification and penis envy
oedipus electra
the __/___ complex is the child's desire to posses their parent of the opposite sex and replace their parent of the same sex
_____ anxiety is that boys fear that their father will castrate them to eliminate the source of lust
penis envy
___ ___ is that a girl comes to wish that her father would share his penis with her through sex or provide her with the symbolic equivalent of a penis: a baby
men women
for the phallic stage, it will result in ___ having fixations that result in going to great lengths of showing they haven't been castrated (spreading their seed) or attaining great career success. for ___ they will be seductive and flirtatious but with a denial of the sexuality
in the __ stage, sexual and aggressive drives are less active. there is the emergence of ego and superego. children turn to other pursuits, often intellectual or social
in the __ stage a desire develops to share mutual sexual gratification with someone. rarely achieved in its entirety but is the ideal
insight energy
the goals of psychodynamic therapy is to gain ___ (re experiencing of emotional reality of repressed conflicts, memories or urges from previously unconscious parts of one's personality) and to free up ___ by releasing need to repress through awareness
empirically case
problems with freud's theory is that it is controversial, difficult to test ____, heavy reliance on a small number of potentially biased ___ studies, long, expensive and usually (psychologically) painful, defenses provide limitless flexibility, even so freud offers a significant and important contribution to the discussion of personality and human behavior
Carl Jungs components of the mind consist of a conscious ego, a personal unconscious (like preconscious) memories and thoughts in the back your mind that are not your current concern, and the collective unconscious which is the idea that we all have memories from our ancestors and these memories are called _____
animus anima
one archetype from Jung's view is ___ (male component of a woman) and ___ (female component of a man). we all have the characteristics of the other sex because our ancestors were both men and women
persona shadow
one archetype from Jung's view is ___ (the "mask", so what we express to others, our appearance) and ___ (the opposite, how we think or react to our inner self)
one archetype from Jung's view is ___. represents fertility, the caring mode that we have. everyone has this archetype in your deeper level of unconscious
hero demon
one archetype from Jung's view is ___ (self of being righteous, just and fair) and ____ (self being evil)
Jung believed that we all have ___ but one dominates. ex. sensing - is there something there, thinking - what is it that is there, feeling - what is it worth?, and intuiting - where did it come from and where is it going
Jung believe that we all have ____, both being extroversion and introversion but only one dominates. Extroversion is directing psychic energy to external world and introversion is directing psychic energy to the internal world
Alder's ___ inferiority theory is the idea of striving for superiority and overcompensating. feelings of inferiority --> striving --> overcome hurdle --> raise bar --> feelings of inferiority --> repeat
one mistaken lifestyle is the ____ complex which refers to when people feel that they always fail. in this model we assume people can overcome hurdles but that is not the case and if they keep having this kind of failure they will have this complex
one mistaken lifestyle is the ____ complex which even if they keep having failure and feeling inferior they want to overcome that feeling of inferiority, not by overcoming the hurdle, but by trying to be arrogant and show off how good they are and exaggerating. they think that they are capable of doing anything but they aren't, exaggerated self concept of superiority
in Alder's birth order the ___ is dethroned. usually treated like a king int he family when they first come out and they are attended to but when the second comes they feel like they lost their attention
in Alder's birth order the ___ is ambitious, competitive because they try to catch up to the first born
in Alder's birth order the ___ is spoiled, creative, lazy, try new things and identities
for an ___ child, they are like the first born but then are shocked when they go to school because they are not the center of attention so they are still dethrones
in self psychology the initial needs involving others is ____
in self psychology the initial sense of self is ____
___ is giving support to the child and responding in an empathic, accepting way (makes child the center of the universe)
parents should address and fulfill a child narcissism because by addressing that you will develop a healthy self ____
mirroring, in a healthy personality, can make us more ___ and helps develop self esteem
if there are severe failures of mirroring, the child never develops an adequate sense of self and later in life will have deeper ___ needs than other people because his or her needs have gone unmet
human beings
object in object relation theories refers to __ ___ relations with others
in Mahler's theory of attachment, the initial state of infant is ____ - period of fusion with your mother. . we start out being psychologically fused with our mothers. parents responsibility to help kids develop separation individuation
separation individuation
____-_____ is an awareness that the child and mother are separate. if mother is too present in the child's experience, the child won't be able to establish a separate existence. if mother pushes too much towards individuation, the child will experience a sense of rejection and loss (separation anxiety). if child develops a stable mental representation of its mother an the mother will be with the child all the time symbolically, therefore the object relation is internalized
in ___ attachment, infant feels confident that when you need someone, someone is there and people are dependable. normal distress when the mother leaves and happy enthusiasm when she returns
in ____ insecure attachment, the infant is resistant, it is because parents are inconsistent in responding to their needs, infant was clingy and very distressed when mom leaves, but will reject the mother when she returns and be angry
in ___ insecure attachment, if you have a parent who never responds to the need of the child, when the parent leaves, the kid is very calm because they are used to the parent leaving and when the parent comes back kid avoids interacting with mom
low avoidance of others and low anxiety produces a ___ sense of self
low avoidance of others and high anxiety of self produce a ____ sense of self. you are ambivalent - afraid of rejection from partner, happy to develop relationships and have a partner but are always afraid they'll leave
high avoidance of others and low anxiety produce a ____ sense of self (avoidant - avoid developing relationships/stay distant because they don't see relationships as bringing any good)
high avoidance of other and high anxiety of self produce a _____ sense of self (avoidant - avoid developing relationships because they are afraid and assume they will be rejected)
___ adults described their most important love relationships as more happy, friendly, and trusting, and they lasted longer
___ adults were less likely than the others report accepting their lovers' imperfections
____ adults experienced love as an obsessive preoccupation with a desire for reciprocation and union, extreme emotional highs and lows, and extremes of both attraction and jealous. also most likely to say the relationship had been love at first sight
people who vary in self portrayal over time seem to be ___ at the core but periodically feel more secure
___ arises in infancy and persists throughout life
attachment style is very specific to ____
if you are ____, at work you don't socialize, only talk about work stuff, and keep busy, you don't want support and don't seek it, less responsive care giving, use more distant coping measures
if you are ___, at work you are worried about being fired, are unhappy at the job, give care giving but it's very compulsive, usually have a lot of wishful thinking when it comes to coping
secure ambivalent
stable parings are secure with ___ and avoidant man with ____ woman
ambivalent avoidant avoidant
unstable pairing are ambivalent with ___ (most unstable), avoidant with ____ and ambivalent man with ___ woman
introverted extraverted neuroticism
if compared with the 5 factor model, avoidant people are ____, secure people are ____ and ambivalent people are high in ___
ego identity
The ___ ___ is a central theme in Erikson's psychosocial theory, it is the consciously experienced sense of self and its development is critically important
conflict crisis
___/___ are the turning points in the psychosocial theory - they are periods when the potential fro growth is high but the person is also quite vulnerable
trust mistrust hope
in the early psychsocial stages ___ vs. ____ develop. if needs are met, baby develops a sense of security and trust (a predominance of trust over mistrust gives rise to the ego strength of ___) a sense of mistrust is created by inconsistent treatment, emotional unavailability or rejection
autonomy shame doubt will
in the early psychsocial stages ___ vs. ____/____ develops when the parents let kid try things out they develop autonomy and if they don't let the explore they will be punished and feel shame and doubt. Managing autonomy and competence leads to the ego quality of ___: determination to exercise free choice
initiative guilt purpose
in the early psychsocial stages ___ vs. ____ develops when children who take the initiative are seeking to impose their newly developed sense of will on their surroundings. if taking initiate leads to disapproval, feelings of guilt will result. Because constantly exerting power does tend to produce some disapproval, initiative eventually must be tempered by restraint, but if it's managed well, the child emerges with the ego quality of ____: the courage to pursue valued goals without fear of punishment
industry inferiority competence
in the early psychsocial stages ___ vs. ____ develop because the child's life remains focused on doing things that have an impact/value. children strong in one of these prefer reality based activities over fantasy, more able to distinguish the role of effort from that of ability in producing outcomes, get better grades, and tend to agree more with statements that are socially desirable. managing conflict between these results in the ego quality of ____: the sense that one can do things that are valued by other
identity role confusion fidelity
in the adolescence psychosocial stage ___vs. ___ ___ is finding an integrated sense of self or having many facets that sometimes seem incompatible. This is the time a person would figure out if they were homosexual. If you successfully overcome this conflict, you will have a strong identity, if not you will be confused into adulthood. identity derives from a blending of private and social self conceptions. Successful identity formation is ____: truthfulness
intimacy isolation love
in the later stages of the psychosocial theory there is ___ vs. ____ in young adulthood. it is either finding close, warm relationships with someone and having a sense of commitment to that person (only capable if you have a strong self identity) or feeling apart from others and unable to make commitments to them. The ego quality associated with the ability to be intimate is ____.
generativity stagnation care
in the later stages of the psychosocial theory there is ___ vs. ____ in adulthood. It is if you are doing something for the next generation or not. it is the desire to create things in the world that will outlive you or an inability or unwillingness to give of oneself to the futures (self center). If there is positive balance, the ego quality that emerges is ____
ego integrity despair wisdom
in the later stages of the psychosocial theory there is ___ ____ vs. ____ in old age. it is when a person decides if they led a meaningful life. It is either if your life has had order and meaning, accepting the choices you made and the things you did or the feeling that your life was wasted. emerging with a positive balance creates the ego quality of ____
Erikson's psychosocial theories were focused on _____
one assessment used for Erikson's psychosocial theory is ____ assessment. it is when you observe kids playing with toys to assess personality. you keep a behavioral record (what the child says about the scene and a description of the scene and the steps taken to create it. Face value of the child's behavior receives more attention than usual in projective tests
one assessment used for Erikson's psychosocial theory is object relations measures. one example of this is the _____ scale - measures a lack of basic trust and an inability to be close. people high on this scale are suspicious, guarded and isolated, concerned that others will fail them (Resembles avoidant attachment)
insecure attachment
one assessment used for Erikson's psychosocial theory is object relations measures. one example of this is the ___ ___ scale - a sensitivity to rejection and concern about being liked and accepted (resembles ambivalent pattern)
one assessment used for Erikson's psychosocial theory is object relations measures. one example of this is the ______ scale - assess narcissism, a self protective and exploitive attitude toward relationships and a tendency to view others only in relation to one's own need and aims
social incompetence
one assessment used for Erikson's psychosocial theory is object relations measures. one example of this is the ___ ____ scale - assesses shyness and uncertainty about how to engage in even simple social interactions
open ended
one assessment used for Erikson's psychosocial theory is ___ ___ measure - uses a coding system to asses the maturity of people's perception of social relationships
___ therapy is used to assess the psychosocial theory. it gives the child the opportunity to do as he or she wishes, without pressuring, intruding, prodding or nagging. Child can have distance from others or they can play out anger or the wish for closeness. child can bring feeling to surface, deal with them and potentially change working models of relationships and self in a positive way