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Terms in this set (125)
molecules that collect light energy
chlorophyll a and b absorb____________ and __________ wavelengths of light best
the main light absorbing pigment found in green plants
plants "look" green because chlorophyll ______________ green light
organisms, like green plants, that can make their own food using energy from the sun
the gel-filled space inside the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid stacks
___________________ I and II contain chlorophyll and absorb light energy during the ____________________ reactions
photosystem, light dependent
during the light dependent reactions, H+ ions build up in the ____________ space when _______ molecules are split
the enzymes for the light dependent reactions are found in the _____________,while the Calvin cycle happens in the _______.
The stacks of thylakoids found inside chloroplasts are called ________
the light independent reactions are also called the ____________________
Carbon and oxygen from __________________ end up as part of a _______________ molecule following the Calvin Cycle
carbon dioxide, glucose
________ and _________ are made during the _____________ reactions and carry energy and high energy electrons that are used during the Calvin Cycle to produce ________, like glucose
ATP, NADP, light dependent, sugars
The O in H₂O is given off as __________ gas to the atmosphere when water is split during the light dependent reactions
Proteins in living things that help chemical reactions happen
Electrons are transferred along the membrane from photosystem II to produce photosystem I using the __________________
electron transport system
orange and yellow colored pigments called _____________________ absorb different wavelengths of light and help chlorophyll use more of the sun's energy
__________________, amount of ______, and ____________ intensity are all factors that affect the rate of photosynthesis.
temperature, water, light
__________________ pushes H+ ions from the stroma across the membrane into the tylakoid space
Which molecule stores more than 90 times the energy in an ATP molecule
All organisms get the energy they need to regenerate ATP from
foods like glucose
consists of ribose sugar, adenine, and 3 phosphate groups, ADP forms when ATP loses a phosphate and releases energy, and ATP provides energy for active transport in cells
organisms that can make their own food
organisms that obtain energy from the food they eat
Two examples of autotrophs
Two examples of heterotrophs
The ultimate source of energy autotrophs use to produce their own food
Mushroom= heterotroph or autotroph
Tree= heterotroph or autotroph
dog= heterotroph or autotroph
The compound chemical that cells use to store energy
What does ATP stand for?
How many phosphates are in one ADP molecule
How is ATP made from ADP?
ADP gains a phosphate molecule
3 cellular activities that use the energy stored in ATP
1. active transport, 2. cellular respiration, and 3. photosynthesis
Plants gather the sun's energy with light-absorbing molecules called ________
Chlorophyll absorbs light very well in the _____________ regions of the visible spectrum
Most plants appear green because chlorophyll _________________
reflects green light
A student conducts an experiment by collecting the gas given off by a green plant in bright sunlight at room temperature. The gas being collected is probably ____________.
Chemical Equation for Photosynthesis
How many molecules of carbon dioxide are used to make 1 molecule of glucose
In addition to water and carbon dioxide, what two things are required for photosynthesis to happen?
light and ATP
Where are Photosystems I and II found?
in the thylakoid membrane
The Calvin Cycle is another name for _______________
Light Dependent Reactions
High-energy electrons move through the electron transport chain, pigments in photosystems II and I absorb light, ATP synthase helps H+ ions in the thylakoid space to pass through the membrane to the stroma
It is also called the light-independent reaction, ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions are used here, High energy sugar compounds are made from CO₂
Which step is the beginning of photosynthesis
Pigments in photosystem II absorb light
Found Inside the Thylakoid Membrane
electron transport chain, photosystem I, photosystem II, ATP synthase
Which molecule acts as a carrier for high energy electrons during photosynthesis
How is the Calvin Cycle different from the light-dependent reactions
It takes place in the stroma
Oxygen produced during the light-dependent reactions is __________
released into the atmosphere
How does NADP+ become NADPH?
NADP+ picks up 2 high energy electrons along with a H+ ion.
3 factors affecting the rate at which photosynthesis occurs
1. temperature, 2. amount of water, 3. light
T or F: Increasing light intensity *decreases* the rate of photosynthesis
T or F: Carbon dioxide molecules enter the *light-dependent reactions* from the atmosphere
T or F: The light-dependent reaction produces ATP, NADPH, and *carbon dioxide*
T or F: Photosynthesis uses energy from ATP and high energy electrons from NADPH produced in *light-dependent* reactions to make glucose in the Calvin Cycle
T or F: ATP synthase spins like a turbine as *H+ ions* pass through it to generate ATP
T or F: Electrons are energized *twice* during photosynthesis
Where does ATP formation happen?
Light-Dependent Reactions Location
Calvin Cycle location
Light-Dependent Reactions Reactants
Calvin Cycle Reactants
Light-Dependent Reaction Products
ATP, O₂, NADPH
Calvin Cycle Products
sugars, like ADP and NADP+
Do the light-dependent reactions require light?
Does the Calvin Cycle require light?
The effect of temperature on the rate of photosynthesis
At high and low temperatures the rate of photosynthesis will stop but has an optimum temperature
Effect of light intensity on the rate of photosynthesis
Light intensity increases up to a certain point then levels off
The first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing energy stored in glucose
The carriers for energy and high energy electrons during glycolysis
If oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by ______
Name the 3 carbon molecule produced when glucose is broken in half during glycolysis
Since fermentation does not require oxygen it is said to be
What high energy electron carrier is regenerated during fermentation that allows cells to continue to make ATP using glycolysis
How many ATP molecules are added to get glycolysis started?
Since glycolysis produces 4 ATP molecules, this results in a NET GAIN of ____ ATPs
Chemical Equation for cellular respiration
Compare the equations for cellular respiration and photosynthesis
They are reversed. Cell respiration puts CO₂ in air, photosynthesis removes it
Equation for alcoholic fermentation
Equation for Lactic Acid fermentation
Pyruvic acid+ NADH→lactic acid+NAD+
What type of fermentation is yeast used to make bread dough rise?
What type of fermentation is when your muscle cells use during rapid exercise when oxygen is low?
What type of fermentation is when bacteria and yeast use this to make beer and wine
What type of fermentation is when bacteria makes cheese, yogurt, and sour cream
If alcoholic fermentation is used to make bread dough rise, how come you don't become intoxicated when you eat the bread?
the alcohol evaporates off
Sequence of cellular respiration
glycolysis→Krebs cycle→Electron Transport chain
Because cellular respiration requires oxygen it is said to be ______
How many ATP molecules are produced by 1 molecule of glucose completing cellular respiration
What are produced during the Krebs Cycle?
ATP, NADH, FADH₂, CO₂
What molecule is the final electron acceptor at the end of the Electron Transport Chain
The movement of which ion across the membrane from the intermembrane space to the matrix causes ATP synthase to spin and make ATP
Which stage of cellular respiration produces the most ATP
What happens as electrons pass down the Electron Transport Chain?
Energy from the moving electrons transports H+ ions into the inter membrane space, Energy from the H+ ions crossing back into the matrix causes ATP synthase to make ATP.
If oxygen is present, what will happen to the NADH produced in this reaction?
Its electrons will enter the Electron transport chain
Name the 6 carbon molecule that forms when Acetyl-CoA joins into its 2 carbons to a 4 carbon molecule during the Krebs cycle
Why does FADH₂ produce fewer ATP molecules than NADH when it passes its electrons down the Electron transport chain
FADH₂ drops its electrons off farther down the ETC so they make less energy
Explain where the enzymes for ET are located in bacteria if they don't have internal membranes
because we are looking at prokaryotes where they are located in the cell membrane
The process of splitting a glucose molecule into 2 pyruvic acid molecules
The molecule used by cells to store and transfer energy
Glycolysis happens outside the mitochondria in the ________________ of the cell
____________________ happens when oxygen is present and includes glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, and electron transport
This describes a process that requires oxygen
This high energy electron carrier produces fewer ATP's than NADH as its electrons ass through the Electron Transport Chain because it enters farther down the chain
The atmospheric gas is required for aerobic respiration
This describes a process that does not require oxygen; it means "without air"
Type of fermentation used by human muscles in low oxygen conditions and microorganisms to make yogurt, cheese, pickles, sauerkraut, and kimchi
As electrons pass down the electron transport chain, H+ ions build up in the __________
The __________ breaks down pyruvic acid into carbon dioxide and produces NADH, FADH₂, and ATP
The NADH and FADH₂ produced during the Krebs Cycle pass their electrons down the ______________ to produce ATP
electron transport chain
The passage of H+ ions through __________ causes it to spin and produce ATP
This 3 carbon molecule is produced during glycolysis when glucose splits in half
Cell organelle which acts as the cell's power plant to burn glucose and store energy as ATP
If oxygen is not present, glycolysis is followed by ______________
Type of fermentation used to make bread dough rise and produce beer and wine
This molecule has the formula of C₆H₁₂O₆ and is split in half during glycolysis
The carbon atoms in pyruvic acid end up as _____ in the atmosphere following the Krebs Cycle
The folded inner membranes inside a mitochondrion are called ______________.
This molecule reacts with pyruvic acid to release CO₂, produce NADH, and acetyl CoA
___________ froms when coenzyme A attaches to 2 carbons from pyruvic acid
_______ is the storage form of glucose used by animal cells which can be broken down for energy when glucose is used up
The area inside the cristae where the Krebs Cycle happens
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