World Geography Unit 1 (Pratt) WITHOUT MAP STUFF, World Geography Unit 2 Dr. Pratt
Terms in this set (94)
a two-dimensional model of all or part of the Earth's surface
help us find location
teach us about places
people who make maps
we store maps in our mind that are based on personal experience, 2nd hand descriptions, stereotypes, or our imagination; also called cognitive images
What shape is the earth?
How large is the bulge at the equator?
scientific method of transferring locations on the Earth's surface to a flat map; can never be perfect (the larger the area being mapped, the greater the distortion)
shape, distance, size, and direction
What are the four types of distortion?
vertical lines called meridians connection the North and South poles
horizontal line called parallels drawn at right angles to meridians
a meridian that passes through 0 degrees longitude
a parallel that passed through 0 degrees latitude
90 degrees North
90 degrees South
minutes and seconds
What can degrees be further divided into?
weeks, hours, minutes
What measurements of time exist only in the human mind?
days, months, and years
What measurements of time actually exist?
How many degrees of longitude is one time zone?
How many degrees of longitude is Earth divided into?
When you move West, do you subtract or add time?
When you move East, do you subtract or add time?
the prime meridian
What is the reference time for all points on Earth?
Greenwich Mean Time
lets you know how many time zones away from 0 degrees longitude a place is; also called Universal Time
US Time Zones
Eastern, Central, Mountain, Pacific
International Date Line
located at 180 degrees longitude; if you cross from East to West you add a day; if you cross from West to East you subtract a day; means that there are always 2 days on Earth at the same time
GPS (global positioning system)
a system of about 30 satellites, orbiting the Earth at an altitude of about 12,000 miles; where ever you are on the planet, at least 4 GPS satellites are visible at any time
determines your position on the Earth using trilateration
expressed in latitude and longitude BUT rather than using degrees, minutes, and seconds, GPS coordinates are presented as decimals
For GPS locations, what kind of numbers are used for North and East?
For GPS locations, what kind of numbers are used for South and West?
originally invented for military use (targeting missiles, locating soldiers on the battlefield, etc.)
What was GPS originally invented for?
a unique location; look at toponym, site, and situation
the name given to a place
the physical character of a place (climate, water sources, elevation, soil, vegetation, human modifications)
the location of a place relative to other places; helps us to find a place but also lets us know why a place is important
an area of the Earth defined by one or more distinctive characteristics; regions are conceptual; geographers use them to organize space
the distinctive characteristic is equally present throughout the whole region
functional (nodal) regions
defined by interactions between a central point (node or focal point) and the surrounding area; tied together by transportation or communication systems, or by economic or cultural connections; effect of a functional region decreases as you move away from the focal point
emotional rather than scientific; changes over time; bases on stereotypes and defined by feelings, impressions, and attitudes rather than facts
the arrangement of a feature in space (how much is there or something and where is that something located?)
two properties of distribution
density and concentration
the frequency with which something occurs in given space
are objects in an area relatively close together or far apart; largely a product of culture and of people's values and resources (clustered or dispersed)
the process by which a characteristic (a thing or area) spreads across space for one place to another
the place where a new characteristic originates
when people relocate and bring characteristics with them
types of expansion diffusion
hierarchical diffusion, stimulus diffusion, contagious diffusion
the spread of an idea from certain influential nodes to other people or places
rapid spread of a characteristic throughout the population
the spread of the underlying principle behind a characteristic
the body of beliefs, traits, social forms and practices that make up the unique tradition of a group of people; studying culture tells us what people value (what is important to them)
two categories of culture
value and resources
what people care about (language, religion, ethnicity)
the things that a human consumes; different cultural groups enjoy different amounts of material wealth and obtain it in a different way
the use of Earth's renewable and non-renewable natural resources in ways that ensure resource availability in the future
a substance in the environment that is useful to people and is economically and technologically feasible to access
can be produced in nature more rapidly than it is consumed by people (sunlight, wind, trees, fish)
produced in nature much more slowly than it is consumed by people (coals, petroleum (oil), natural gas)
misuses of resources
Depleting nonrenewable resources or using up renewable resources more rapidly than they can be reproduced and destroying otherwise renewable resources with pollution of the air, water, or soil (deforestation, extinction, pollution, overuse of water, oil spills, "Pacific Trash Vortex," climate change)
the maintenance of resources in their present condition, little human impact
the sustainable use and management of Earth's natural resources for human needs
three pillars of sustainability
environment, economy, and society
limit human impact on nature; reduce the damage we cause to a level less than what nature can repair
- don't cut down trees faster than new ones can grow
- don't harvest seafood faster than it can reproduce
- find alternatives to non-renewable energy sources
- eliminate wasteful practices (bottles water, air conditioner)
resources are valuable; consuming resources is profitable; reducing consumption would lead to a reduction in the economy; companies will lose money if they can't use up resources
"Tragedy of the Commons"
by acting independently and rationally according to each one's own self-interest, individuals will behave contrary to the whole group's long-term best interests by depleting some common resource
in theory, the monetary value of a product reflects the cost of its production, but consuming some products has an extra cost to other people not reflected in the price
how do we conserve natural resources while still providing for the needs of human beings; a conservation plan that does not address inequality and poverty is unlikely to succeed
the scientific study of population
too dry, too wet, too cold, too high
why are some regions sparsely populated?
the portion of the earth's surface occupied by permanent human settlement
river that is very important to the indians
the frequency with which something occurs in a given space
total # of people in a country divided by the total land area of the country
ratio between total population and the total of arable land
ratio between the number of farmers and the total amount of arable land
crude birth rate
# of babies born in a year per 1000 people
crude death rate
# of deaths in a year per 1000 people
natural increase rate
the percentage by which a population grows in a year
the number of males per 100 females
total fertility rate
the average number of children a woman will have during her childbearing years
infant mortality rate
the death of a child less than one year old per 1000 live births
the number of people too young or too old to work compared to the number of working-age people.
stage one of the demographic transition
lots of babies being born, but lots of people dying. high cbr and cdr.
stage two of the demographic transition
technological advances lead to decline in cdr. cbr>cdr
stage three of the demographic transition
cultural changes lead to decline in cbr.
stage four of the demographic transition
cdr=cbr and nir=0 roughly equal number of people.
stage five of the demographic transition
when the cbr starts to decrease. very developed countries
focuses on the distinctive cause of death in each stage of the demographic transition
stage one of the epidemiological transition
infectious deaths and violence are the main causes of death
stage two of the epidemiological transition
receding pandemics are the causes of deaths
stage three of the epidemiological transition
more aging relative diseases are the cause of deaths
stage four of the epidemiological transition
new medical advances to extend life. extension to stage three
stage five of the epidemiological transition
possible re-emergence of infectious diseases