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64 terms

Organic Chemistry

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organic chemistry
studies millions of compounds which are always made up of carbon and hydrogen and sometimes include oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur
characteristics of organic compounds
1. covalent bonds 2. nonpolar 3. insoluble in water 4 low melting point, low boiling point, low density 5. some have isomers
isomer
compound with the same molecular formula but different structural formula
how many bonds does carbon have
always has 4 bonds
how many bonds does hydrogen have
always has 1 bond
how many bonds does oxygen have
always has 2 bonds
how many bonds does nitrogen have
always has 3 bonds
how many bonds does sulfur have
always has 2 bonds
types of hydrocarbons (C & H)
alkane, alkene, alkyne, aromatic
compounds with C, H and O
ketones, carboxylic acid, esters, alcohols, aldehydes, ether
compounds with C, H, N, maybe O
amines, nitriles, amides
hydrocarbons prefixes
C1 - meth; C2 - eth; C3 - prop; C4 - but; C5 - pent; C6 - hex; C7 - hept; C8 - oct; C9 - non; C10 - deca; Cn - alk
hydrocarbon suffixes
CnH2n+2 = alkANE; CnH2n = alkENE; CnH2n-2 = alkYNE; CnH2n-6 = aromatic
alkanes also known as?
parafines or saturated hydrocarbons
alkane characteristics (5)
1. saturated (have ONLY single bonds- no double or triple) and do not add anything to their formula; 2. good fuels; 3. nonpolar 4. insoluble in water; 5. exhibit only LDF
gaseous alkenes
C1-C4; have no color no smell
liquid alkenes
C5-C14 (gasoline, diesel, jet fuel, kerosene...)
solid alkenes
C15-... (vaseline, tar, asphalt)
alkyl (R-) group of alkanes
those compounds of the alkane group with one H removed from the end or middle (CnH2n+2-1)
alkane formulas and names
C1H4 - methane; C2H6 - ethane; C3H8 - propane; C4H10 - butane; C5H12 - pentane; C6H14 - hexane; C7H16 - heptane; C8H18 - octane; C9H20 - nonane; C10H22 - decane
alkene formulas and names
C1H2 (DOES NOT EXIST - C must have 4 bonds); C2H4 - ethene; C3H6 - propene; C4H8 - butene; C5H10 - pentene; C6H12 - hexene; C7H14 - heptene; C8H16- octene; C9H18 - nonene; C10H20 - decene
alkyne formulas and names
C1H0 doe not exist; C2H2 - ethyne; C3H4 - propyne; C4H6 - butyne; C5H8 - pentyne; C6H10 - hexyne; C7H12 - heptyne; C8H14 - octyne; C9H16 - nonyne; C10H18 - decyne
alkyl names and formulas
CH3 - methyl; C2H5 - ethyl; C3H7 - propyl; C4H9 - butyl; C5H11 - pentyl; C6H13 - hexyl; C7H15 - heptyl; C8H17 - octyl; C9H19 - nonyl; C10H21 - decyl
alkanes that do not have isomers
CH4, C2H6, C3H8
alkene characteristics
1. are unsaturated (have at least 1 double bond), and can have addition reactions, polymerization reactions and oxidation reactions; 2. can have constitutional and geometric isomers
geometric isomers of alkenes
cis (boat shape), trans (chair shape)
addition reactions of alkenes
pi bond is broken and two atoms can be added to the molecule
types of additional reactions of alkenes
1. addition of H2 (hydrogenation); 2. addition of a halogen (halogenation); 3. addition of HCl, HBr or HI; 4. addition of H20 (hydration)
Markovnikov's Rule
in addition of HX to pi bond of alkene, H goes to C with more H and X goes to C with less H
alkyne characteristics
unsaturated and can undergo addition reactions
types of alkyne addition reactions
1. H2 (hydrogenation); 2. halogen (halogenation); 3. HX; 4. water (hydration)
hydration reaction in alkyne forms?
ketone or aldehyde
what must aromatic compounds contain?
a benzene ring
benzene characteristics
1. liquid with a nice odor; 2. good solvent; 3. is a carcinogen and can cause cancer
important aromatic hydrocarbons
1. toluene (methylbenzene); 2. xylene (Orthoxylene, Metaxylene, Paraxylene); 3. nepthalene; 4. phenol; 5. aniline; 6. benzaldehyde; 7. benzoic acid
toluene (methylbenzene) formula
C7H8
orthoxylene formula
C8H10; X on 1, 2
metaxylene formula
C8H10; X on 1, 3
paraxylene formula
C8H10; X on 1, 4
nepthalene formula
C10H8 (two benzenes connected and sharing one side)
phenol formula
C6H5OH
aniline formula
C6H5NH2
benzaldehyde formula
C6H5CHO
benzoic acid formula
C6H5COOH
primary carbon
linked to carbon on only 1 side
secondary carbon
linked to carbon on 2 sides
tertiary carbon
linked to carbon on 3 sides
quarternary carbon
linked to carbon on 4 sides
hydrocarbon characteristics (3)
nonpolar, insoluble in H2O, exhibit LDF
alcohol characteristics (3)
highly polar, highly soluble in water up to C4, h-bond
carboxylic acid characteristics (3)
highly polar, highly soluble in water up to C4, h-bond
primary and secondary amine characteristics (3)
highly polar, highly soluble in water up to C4, h-bond
ether characteristics (3)
polar, more or less soluble up to C4, exhibits DDF
aldehyde characteristics (3)
polar, more or less soluble up to C4, exhibits DDF
ketone characteristics (3)
polar, more or less soluble up to C4, exhibits DDF
carboxylic acid characteristics (3)
polar, more or less soluble up to C4, exhibits DDF
tertiary amine characteristics (3)
polar, more or less soluble up to C4, exhibits DDF
oxidation
removing a hydrogen or adding an oxygen to a compound
reduction
adding a hydrogen or removing an oxygen to a compound
hydrating an alkene
adding H2O to a pi bond; creates alcohol
polymerization
joining MANY molecules of a small alkene (C2H4 or C3H6)and forming a very large molecule called a polymer; requires a double bond (alkene)
estrification
acid + alcohol = water + ester
boiling point, melting point, solubility
acid > alcohol > amine > aldehyde, ketone, amide > hydrocarbons
chirol carbon
carbon which is linked to 4 DIFFERENT atoms or groups of atoms