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studies millions of compounds which are always made up of carbon and hydrogen and sometimes include oxygen, nitrogen and sulfur
characteristics of organic compounds
1. covalent bonds 2. nonpolar 3. insoluble in water 4 low melting point, low boiling point, low density 5. some have isomers
C1 - meth; C2 - eth; C3 - prop; C4 - but; C5 - pent; C6 - hex; C7 - hept; C8 - oct; C9 - non; C10 - deca; Cn - alk
alkane characteristics (5)
1. saturated (have ONLY single bonds- no double or triple) and do not add anything to their formula; 2. good fuels; 3. nonpolar 4. insoluble in water; 5. exhibit only LDF
alkyl (R-) group of alkanes
those compounds of the alkane group with one H removed from the end or middle (CnH2n+2-1)
alkane formulas and names
C1H4 - methane; C2H6 - ethane; C3H8 - propane; C4H10 - butane; C5H12 - pentane; C6H14 - hexane; C7H16 - heptane; C8H18 - octane; C9H20 - nonane; C10H22 - decane
alkene formulas and names
C1H2 (DOES NOT EXIST - C must have 4 bonds); C2H4 - ethene; C3H6 - propene; C4H8 - butene; C5H10 - pentene; C6H12 - hexene; C7H14 - heptene; C8H16- octene; C9H18 - nonene; C10H20 - decene
alkyne formulas and names
C1H0 doe not exist; C2H2 - ethyne; C3H4 - propyne; C4H6 - butyne; C5H8 - pentyne; C6H10 - hexyne; C7H12 - heptyne; C8H14 - octyne; C9H16 - nonyne; C10H18 - decyne
alkyl names and formulas
CH3 - methyl; C2H5 - ethyl; C3H7 - propyl; C4H9 - butyl; C5H11 - pentyl; C6H13 - hexyl; C7H15 - heptyl; C8H17 - octyl; C9H19 - nonyl; C10H21 - decyl
1. are unsaturated (have at least 1 double bond), and can have addition reactions, polymerization reactions and oxidation reactions; 2. can have constitutional and geometric isomers
types of additional reactions of alkenes
1. addition of H2 (hydrogenation); 2. addition of a halogen (halogenation); 3. addition of HCl, HBr or HI; 4. addition of H20 (hydration)
in addition of HX to pi bond of alkene, H goes to C with more H and X goes to C with less H
types of alkyne addition reactions
1. H2 (hydrogenation); 2. halogen (halogenation); 3. HX; 4. water (hydration)
1. liquid with a nice odor; 2. good solvent; 3. is a carcinogen and can cause cancer
important aromatic hydrocarbons
1. toluene (methylbenzene); 2. xylene (Orthoxylene, Metaxylene, Paraxylene); 3. nepthalene; 4. phenol; 5. aniline; 6. benzaldehyde; 7. benzoic acid
primary and secondary amine characteristics (3)
highly polar, highly soluble in water up to C4, h-bond
joining MANY molecules of a small alkene (C2H4 or C3H6)and forming a very large molecule called a polymer; requires a double bond (alkene)
boiling point, melting point, solubility
acid > alcohol > amine > aldehyde, ketone, amide > hydrocarbons
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