mountains on Italian peninsula and river
Apennine mountains; northern border is Alps; Tiber River is where Rome emerges
3 early peoples of ancient Rome
Italic peoples (central); Greek colonists (south, Sicily); Etruscans (north)
The Rape of Lucretia plot
noblewoman; husband is in competition who has best wife so they go see what wives are doing unsupervised; she's found working and she serves them and wins competition; prince rapes her and she kills herself for sake of husband's honor who then overthrows Atruscan King
morals of The Rape of Lucretia
monarchy is evil and to be avoided at all costs; Lucretia is model wife
emergency situation with dictator to protect form monarchy; he's a small farmer Roman citizen who drops everything to serve as dictator and defeats Rome's enemies in year then goes back to farm
how were Roman myths different than Mesopotamian and Greek foundational myths?
Roman myths were "historical" - founded in time
government of early roman republic involved...
2 consuls (imperium) with one year posisiton; senate of about 300 men who have office for life representing the elite Patrician social class; Plebian assembly in which all free men vote
new land owned by government acquired from military progress turned into these; plantations that make government people rich
major problem leading to Roman Republic's decline
long deployments far away and come back to find farm has been lost and maybe can't find family; no longer citizens because don't have land; angry so they go kill people
Tiberius Gracchi's reform
he serves as tribune of Plebians (high class) who instigates reforms seeing economic and social problems as primary (soldiers losing citizenship), proposing land distribution of giving Latifundias to veterans; he was assassinated
Gaius Gracchi's reform
grain prices have shot up because it's being exported for more money so there's a shortage in Rome; he tries to fix this and is also assassinated
Marius and the New Army Reform
problems with recruitment so he takes away requirement that they're land owners and citizens but then they no longer have sense of loyalty to Rome, it's to their general who pays them - generals are really building private armies - civil war over who gets to fight newest regime between generals and Senate
Pompey and Caesar
Pompey is worried about Julius Caesar getting too much power so asks him to surrender army and come back to normal citizen status (play Cincinnatus); Julius Caesar says no and wins civil war with Pompey
statue of Brutus in Senate
goes back to Rape of Lucretia; people posted notes on this saying needed someone to get rid of Caesar - Brutus who stages assassination of Caesar
Antony and Octavian
Antony is allied with Cleopatra; Octavian portrays him as traitor to Rome saying they plan to establish monarchy; defeats them at Batlle of Actium and they both commit suicide
Octavian after Battle of Actium
now holds all military control and has gained control of Egypt and ended civil war; pretends he's going to retire and play Cincinnatus, but really gets to keep power
what was the empire of Octavian called and what was the leader called and what did it mean?
the principate; princeps: principle/first citizen; didn't want to be called king or prince
who reestablishes political stability after second triumvirate?
Augustus (Octavian; he's called this later)
what does Augustus (Octavian) do during his reign?
helps rich and poor with his private money; reforms the army and pays them out of his own personal treasury; builds up his own bodyguards
permanent army established by Augustus had...
not enough Romans to fill it so allies (non-citizens) also join
priests of Rome
state officials, sent out to negotiate diplomatically and they consult gods before government makes decisions for divine approval
Augustus and Caesar
Augustus had Caesar's spirit recognized as a god (helps him to legitimize himself)
"cult" of the emperor
sacrificing to dead emperors, begun by Augustus recognizing Caesar's spirit as god
Essenes as described in Qumran/Dead Sea Scrolls beliefs
emphasis on repentance and withdrawal from society
Christians in Rome
as a new religion were not exempt from making pagan sacrifices and weren't a legal religion so met in secret and were considered anti-social
first systematic persecution...
in third century under Emperor Decius who blamed them for empire's troubles because thought gods were unhappy
how did Diocletian salvage the empire?
dividing it in half; east has advantage because much more economically developed; put Augustus in place, one on each half, as co-emperors, with Caesars under them as emperors-in-training who will succeed them
edict of milan
made Christianity legal; made because Constantine had vision needed to paint sign of Christianity on shields - they do and are victorious
Constantine's 2 major things
moves capital of east from Rome to Constantinople, letting the west go; Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity
who replaced the last roman emperor in the west?
Germanic king (never goes back); Franks have longest lasting Germanic reign - France and Germany; pagans