Romulus and Remus, The Rape of Lucretia, Cincinnatus, and The Aeneid
Romulus and Remus
twins with semi-divine status raised by wolves; considered founders of Rome
The Rape of Lucretia plot
noblewoman; husband is in competition who has best wife so they go see what wives are doing unsupervised; she's found working and she serves them and wins competition; prince rapes her and she kills herself for sake of husband's honor who then overthrows Atruscan King
morals of The Rape of Lucretia
monarchy is evil and to be avoided at all costs; Lucretia is model wife
emergency situation with dictator to protect form monarchy; he's a small farmer Roman citizen who drops everything to serve as dictator and defeats Rome's enemies in year then goes back to farm
moral of Cincinnatus
model citizen for taking power then giving it up
the Aeneid plot
Trojan soldier who escaped Trojan wars; blends Greek and Roman; loyal to family
how were Roman myths different than Mesopotamian and Greek foundational myths?
Roman myths were "historical" - founded in time
government structure of Roman Republic
Republic, then empire int he east is built at the same time
who wrote the earliest surviving history?
government of early roman republic involved...
2 consuls (imperium) with one year posisiton; senate of about 300 men who have office for life representing the elite Patrician social class; Plebian assembly in which all free men vote
Punic wars were against
Roman accomplishments during Punic Wars
Romans developed a navy and established overseas provinces
expansion during Punic wars
into Eastern Mediterranean and Greece
local Macedonian bids saying I'll tax and only take _%
new land owned by government acquired from military progress turned into these; plantations that make government people rich
who controlled top government offices in Roman Republic
26 rich families
major problem leading to Roman Republic's decline
long deployments far away and come back to find farm has been lost and maybe can't find family; no longer citizens because don't have land; angry so they go kill people
Gracchi brothers names
Tiberius and Gaius
Tiberius Gracchi's reform
he serves as tribune of Plebians (high class) who instigates reforms seeing economic and social problems as primary (soldiers losing citizenship), proposing land distribution of giving Latifundias to veterans; he was assassinated
Gaius Gracchi's reform
grain prices have shot up because it's being exported for more money so there's a shortage in Rome; he tries to fix this and is also assassinated
Marius and the New Army Reform
problems with recruitment so he takes away requirement that they're land owners and citizens but then they no longer have sense of loyalty to Rome, it's to their general who pays them - generals are really building private armies - civil war over who gets to fight newest regime between generals and Senate
3 top generals of Senate class: Crassus, Pompey, and Julius Caesar
Julius Caesar was sent to...
bring Gall under control
Pompey and Caesar
Pompey is worried about Julius Caesar getting too much power so asks him to surrender army and come back to normal citizen status (play Cincinnatus); Julius Caesar says no and wins civil war with Pompey
what happens when Caesar wins civil war with Pompey?
becomes dictator but then is assassinated
statue of Brutus in Senate
goes back to Rape of Lucretia; people posted notes on this saying needed someone to get rid of Caesar - Brutus who stages assassination of Caesar
after Caesar is assassinated what comes next?
15 years of civil war
Octavian (later known as Augustus), Marc Antony, and Lepidus
main goal of Second Triumvirate
trying to get rid of 26 controlling families
trained by others to become shrewd military leader
Antony and Octavian
Antony is allied with Cleopatra; Octavian portrays him as traitor to Rome saying they plan to establish monarchy; defeats them at Batlle of Actium and they both commit suicide
Octavian after Battle of Actium
now holds all military control and has gained control of Egypt and ended civil war; pretends he's going to retire and play Cincinnatus, but really gets to keep power
what was the empire of Octavian called and what was the leader called and what did it mean?
the principate; princeps: principle/first citizen; didn't want to be called king or prince
who reestablishes political stability after second triumvirate?
Augustus (Octavian; he's called this later)
what does Augustus (Octavian) do during his reign?
helps rich and poor with his private money; reforms the army and pays them out of his own personal treasury; builds up his own bodyguards
permanent army established by Augustus had...
not enough Romans to fill it so allies (non-citizens) also join
problem that arises during Augustus' reign
back to hereditary army
priests of Rome
state officials, sent out to negotiate diplomatically and they consult gods before government makes decisions for divine approval
Greek culture brought into Rome; deities who protect certain places/people
Augustus and Caesar
Augustus had Caesar's spirit recognized as a god (helps him to legitimize himself)
"cult" of the emperor
sacrificing to dead emperors, begun by Augustus recognizing Caesar's spirit as god
who ruled Judea
Seleucids and Ptolemies
when did Romans begin occupying Judea?
when Julius Caesar was assassinated
Sadducees and Sanhedrin beliefs
say must obey government and will be given freedom in return
religiously conservative and extremely dedicated to the Law
Essenes as described in Qumran/Dead Sea Scrolls beliefs
emphasis on repentance and withdrawal from society
believe in political resistance, wanting independence
Jews in Rome
had been respected as historical religion and were exempt from making pagan sacrifices
Christians in Rome
as a new religion were not exempt from making pagan sacrifices and weren't a legal religion so met in secret and were considered anti-social
Paul of Tarsus is considered...
founder of Christianity because he spread it
first systematic persecution...
in third century under Emperor Decius who blamed them for empire's troubles because thought gods were unhappy
worst persecution was under...
how did Diocletian salvage the empire?
dividing it in half; east has advantage because much more economically developed; put Augustus in place, one on each half, as co-emperors, with Caesars under them as emperors-in-training who will succeed them
edict of milan
made Christianity legal; made because Constantine had vision needed to paint sign of Christianity on shields - they do and are victorious
Council of Nicaea/Nicene Creed
Christians began arguing over doctrine so Constantine made these
makes Christianity only legal religion
in Egypt, promotes monasticism (lifestyle of monks)
two important centers of Egypt for Christianity
Pachomius and Alexandria
where NT books were declared canonical by Athanasius
bishop of Alexandria; first to list the 27 books of the NT as canonical
believes if priests are not of good character the sacraments are ineffective
modern-day Ethiopia - rulers converted; Edict of Milan; close ties to Egypt's church
terrible third century
barracks emperors - seized control thru military; Decius
Constantine's 2 major things
moves capital of east from Rome to Constantinople, letting the west go; Edict of Milan legalizes Christianity