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Daily pressures compounded by racism and prejudice take a toll on many African-Americans in the form of

high blood pressure.

Rush-hour traffic is to upset stomach as ________ is to ________.

stressor; stress reaction

Dental students healed more slowly from punch wounds received three days prior to a major exam than from punch wounds received during their summer vacation. The slower healing prior to a major exam is best explained by the students' temporarily reduced production of


Avoiding stress is LEAST likely to inhibit the progression of ________ in humans.

advanced cancer

One possible explanation for the longer life expectancy of religiously active people is that

they receive more social support.

Elderly nursing home residents tend to decline faster and die sooner than they would otherwise if they lac

perceived control.

An understanding of how stress affects our resistance to disease is the central focus of the field of


Friedman and Rosenman referred to competitive, hard-driving, impatient, and easily angered individuals as ________ personalities.

Type A

The risk of coronary heart disease is increased by

high blood pressure.

Anger is the toxic core of

the Type A personality.

In a stressful situation, feelings of pain are dulled by

the sympathetic nervous system.

Carl Rogers referred to an attitude of total acceptance toward another person as

unconditional positive regard.

A perceived loss of control is associated with ________ epinephrine levels and ________ lymphocyte activity.

increased; decreased

In their classic nine-year study, Friedman and Rosenman reported that, compared with Type A men, Type B men were

less susceptible to heart attacks.

Despite very stressful events in his life, Mark has been able to maintain good health. This is because of his persistent optimism and the emotional support of his family. An integrated understanding of Mark's well-being is most clearly provided by

a biopsychosocial approach.

A stress-moderating hormone released by cuddling and associated with pair-bonding is known as


Self-actualized people, as described by Maslow, are LEAST likely to be highly


Which of the following is an example of biofeedback?
Kecia successfully quits smoking after her psychologist has her smoke so rapidly she cannot tolerate another cigarette.
Milos learns to relax his forehead muscles after being provided with information regarding moment-to-moment changes in the tension levels of these muscles.
Chico learns to lower his blood pressure by meditating twice a day.
Jane decides to work fewer hours after seeing a film linking stress with cancer.

Milos learns to relax his forehead muscles after being provided with information regarding moment-to-moment changes in the tension levels of these muscles.

The genes in muscle cells that are not activated by exercise produce lower quantities of proteins, which leaves us susceptible to

all of these diseases.

For Type A individuals, exposure to stress is especially likely to inhibit organs such as the ________ from removing cholesterol and fat from the blood.


Alex experiences little stress because he expects things to work out the way he wants them to. This best illustrates the value of


Two-thirds of Americans responding to surveys taken in the three weeks after the 9/11 terrorist attacks reported

sleeping difficulties.

The three successive phases of the general adaptation syndrome are

alarm reaction, resistance, and exhaustion.

Depression increases the risk of death, especially death from

coronary heart disease.

The relaxation response associated with meditation is most likely to

decrease oxygen consumption and decrease blood pressure.

Compared with men, women have ________ immune systems, and they are ________ susceptible to lupus and multiple sclerosis.

stronger; more

Walter Cannon observed that a variety of stressors trigger

a fight-or-flight reaction.

The correlation between religious involvement and life expectancy is ________ among women and ________ among men.

positive; positive

Aerobic exercise is associated with

increased levels of serotonin and increased levels of the endorphins.

Aviad, a 50-year-old banking executive and Type A personality, recently suffered a serious heart attack. To prevent a recurrence, Aviad would probably benefit most from

relaxation training.

The greatest number of deaths in Africa today result from


British civil service workers in executive positions live longer than those in clerical positions. This best illustrates the value of

perceived control.

Cameron, a 50-year-old electrician, opens his pay envelope and, to his surprise, finds a pink slip inside indicating that he has been fired from his job. Which phase of the general adaptation syndrome is Cameron most likely experiencing?

alarm reaction

A psychophysiological illness is

a stress-related physical illness such as hypertension.

Chronic anger ________ the risk of heart disease, and chronic depression ________ the risk of heart disease.

increases; increases

Which of the following have been criticized the most for offering concepts that are vague and subjective?

humanistic theorists

Maslow placed ________ at the base of his hierarchy of needs.

bodily needs

A Harvard School of Public Health research team studied 1306 initially healthy men over a 10-year period. They found that ________ were more than twice as likely as ________ to develop heart disease.

pessimists; optimists

Aging women who had experienced prolonged stress as caregivers for children with serious disorders experienced a premature decrease in the size of their


Resistance to stress is greatest during ________ of the GAS.

phase 2

Addressing stressors with problem-focused coping would be most characteristic of those with

personal control.

Heart disease and depression may both result when chronic stress triggers

persistent inflammation

One study of migraine headache patients found that the majority of those who received "sham acupuncture" enjoyed relief. The patients' pain relief is most likely attributable to

the placebo effect.

The natural disappearance of a disease is called

spontaneous remission.

Volunteers who participated in an eight-week course of meditation training exhibited increased levels of the ______ activity associated with positive emotions.

left hemisphere

Following a catastrophic earthquake, residents of one community came together and provided each other with emotional support. This reaction best illustrates

the tend-and-befriend response.

Homeopathy and herbal remedies are forms of


Abraham Maslow suggested that those who fulfill their potential have satisfied the need for


T lymphocytes are formed in the


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