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Experience Psychology- Chapter 7: Thinking, Intelligence, and Language: Vocab
Terms in this set (97)
The effect of education on intelligence is known as:
the Flynn effect
The tendency to focus only on information that supports your opinion is called the _______ bias.
Which of the following are traits of intellectually gifted people?
Academically advanced, IQ of 130 or above, superior talents in a particular area, and socially well-adjusted
What are some traits of those who are intellectually gifted?
Well-adjusted and higher than normal IQ
_______ reasoning is reasoning from the specific to the general.
_______ is a learning disability characterized by difficulty with learning to read fluently and with accurate comprehension, despite normal intelligence.
A test (like an IQ test) that accurately measures what it is intended to measure is highly _______.
What does the prototype model of concepts emphasize?
That when people evaluate whether an item reflects a concept, they compare the item with the most typical item in that category.
_______ _______ intelligence reflects the ability to manipulate objects and be physically adept
Thinking may involve:
visual images and data in any sensory modality
All of the following are aspects of thinking EXCEPT:
physically manipulating objects
Phonology is the study of
the smallest units of speech and phonemes
_______ describes a language's sound system
According to Darner's theory, _______ intelligence is the ability to understand and relate well to others.
Problem-solving skills and the ability to adapt to and learn from life's everyday experiences is known as:
_______ intelligence is the ability to think three-dimensionally.
_______ intelligence is the ability to design, invent, originate, and imagine.
Being alert and mentally present for one's everyday activities is known as:
_______ are basic and smallest sounds of language.
What are some common characteristics of creative people?
Willingness to face risk, flexibility, and divergent thinking.
Someone who has divergent, flexible, and playful thinking is likely to be regarded as _______.
A sensitivity to pitch, melody, rhythm, and tone is known as _______ intelligence.
In order to have a IQ score greater than 100, a child's ______ age must be above his or her _______ age.
When an infant utters sound like "ma," "pa," and "me" more or less randomly, he is
According to Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences, _______ intelligence is the ability to think in words and use language to express meaning.
_______ intelligence is the ability to understand oneself.
_______ are mental categories that are used to group objects, events, and characteristics.
When it comes to categorizing new information, our brains uses several techniques, for example, the mental category that is used to group objects, and events, are called a(n)
Which of the following are sources of bias in intelligence testing?
Ethnicity, culture, socioeconomic status
If a test asks the question "What is the best way to grow soybeans for ethanol," what type of bias is being exhibited?
Of the following, which describe the purpose(s) of concepts?
Concepts allow us to associate experiences and objects, concepts allow us to generalize, concepts aid memory, and concepts provide clues about how to react to particular experience
_______ are categorization of objects, events, or people that share common properties
The _______ heuristic is the tendency to make judgments about group membership based on physical appearances or the match between a person and one's stereotype of a group, rather than on available base rate information.
Individuals with intellectual disabilities who have no evidence of organic brain damage or genetic disorders are diagnosed with:
cultural-familial intellectual disability
Maggie is always coming up with different ideas and unique ways to solve problems. Because of her divergent type of thinking, many people call her _______.
_______ is a language's rules for word formation.
Scientists, engineers, and accountants are people who are likely to have a high level of _______ intelligence.
We use _______, symbols, signs, or sounds arranged according to systematic rules, to communicate our ideas.
_______ intelligence is the ability to judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast.
_______ _______ is evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
Cognitive psychology is the study of
thought, language, memory, and reasoning.
Thinking, language, memory, and reasoning are all part of _______ psychology.
In which of the following tasks can humans outperform computers?
Processing visual information and processing spoken language
Thinking that a plane crash is more likely than a car crash because you can easily remember dramatic images of plane crash on TV is an example of what cognitive shortcut?
_______ is the extent to which a test yields a consistent, reproducible measure of performance.
_______-mindedness is being receptive to the possibility to other ways of looking at things.
On Monday when you asked your friend if you should dump the person you're dating, she said "yes." Now on Wednesday, she says "no." Since you asked her twice and got two different answers, in terms of validity and reliability, her advice is not _______.
_______ intelligence is the ability to observe patterns in nature and understand human-made systems.
What aspect of grammar is responsible for the different meanings of these two sentences: "Sam loved the girl," and "Sam, the loved girl"?
A prototype is a typical, highly representative example of a(n)
Which of the following are effects of language on cognition?
Facilitates us in solving problems, assists using tackling difficult decisions, and helps us makes inferences
What type of test purposefully only uses questions that are familiar to people from all socioeconomic and ethnic backgrounds, or uses no verbal questions at all?
Sternberg's ______ theory of intelligence states that intelligence comes in three forms: analytical, creative, and practical
Michael could gamble 4 quarters in a carnival game, with the potential to win as many as 20 quarters. However, the possibility that he might end up with no quarters at all leads Michael to choose not to play. Michael's decision illustrates _______ _______.
_______ thinking involves creativity and the production of many solutions to the same problem, whereas _______ thinking produces the single best solution to a problem.
Julio needs to mark a piece of wood for cutting, but cannot find a pencil or pen. He does not realize that he could mark the wood with a screwdriver. This indicates that Julio is displaying.
Spearman proposed that intelligence captures a(n)
common general ability reflected in performance on a variety of tasks.
Charles _______ proposed that intelligence captures a common general ability that is reflected in performance on various cognitive tests.
Which of the following are symptoms of cultural-familial intellectual disability?
Highly sensitive to others' expectations of them, IQ between 55 and 70, and no evidence of organic brain damage
What type of test is based exclusively on norms?
_______ are created so that tests are applicable to individuals from diverse groups.
In decades past, the behaviorist psychologist claimed that language learning occurred via reward, which was also called _______.
Which of the following is evidence for the behavioral view of language development?
The more parents speak to a child, the better the child is at acquiring language.
The fact that children all over the world reach language milestones at about the same time is evidence of a(n) ________ basis of language.
The strongest evidence for a biological basis of language is
The fact that children learning any language reach language milestones at about the same time.
_______ involves using a prior and failing to look at a problem from a fresh, new perspective.
_______ intellectual disability is a type of intellectual disability caused by genetic disorder or by brain damage.
A type of intellectual disability caused by a genetic disorder or by brain damage is known as:
Organic intellectual disability
Which of the following are a part of the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (the WAIS)
Working memory capacity, jigsaw puzzle completion, and vocabulary
Which of the following are associated with bilingual adults and children?
Higher performance on cognitive control tasks and the capacity to shift frames of reference efficiently
Which of the following is an example of convergent thinking?
Reading a book and using a screwdriver to tighten a screw
When considering the _______ influence on language, a number of experts believe that language is a very recent human ability.
Gary has decided to re-landscape his front yard. He's set some deadlines for himself; by Tuesday, he wants to have the weeds pulled, and by Friday, he wants to have the new plants in. Gary is using _______ in reaching his goal of a new front yard.
_______ intelligence reflects the ability to grapple with such questions as the meaning of life and death.
_______ refers to the way in which information is processed and manipulated in thinking remembering, and knowing.
Which of the following is an example of divergent thinking?
Using a brick as a doorstop
Monique is without a pencil as she is working in her woodshop. She is using a screwdriver to mark wood for cutting, displaying all but which of the following?
_____ refers to a language's rules for word formation, whereas _____ refer to the meaning of words and sentences.
Your roommate argues that computers can perform several complex tasks better and more accurately than humans. You counter her argument by mentioning that computers cannot _____, a task that only humans have the means to perform.
develop new learning goals
Brainstorming is an example of
_____ may help us to generalize, whereas _____ may help us accomplish a goal.
In the context of loss aversion, identify the true statement about sunk-cost fallacy.
People are reluctant to give up on a venture because of past investment
Sophia is in the fifth grade and lives in one of the most impoverished areas in the state. She has a history of academic failure, although she is very sensitive to teacher expectations. Her teachers have noticed that she responds best when candy is offered as an incentive instead of verbal praise. Sophia's IQ is 65. She is most likely a victim of
When the scores on a measure relate to important outcomes, we say the test has high
Claudia is trying to cook her mother's famous lasagna. She carefully follows her mother's recipe to ensure that the dish turns out correctly. In this case, Claudia is using a(n)
Psychological research involves studying a sample of participants in order to draw conclusions about the population from which the sample is drawn. This is an example of
Monique routinely uses a shredder to shred her junk-mail into confetti-sized pieces of paper, which she then just throws away. When packing her glassware to move into a new apartment, she runs out of protective styrofoam packing material. Suddenly Monique gets the idea to empty her shredder and use the shredded junk mail confetti for packing material. In this case, Monique has
overcome functional fixedness
You have to study four chapters of information for your next test. If you decide to use the problem-solving strategy of subgoaling, which of the following would you most likely do?
You would break the topics to be studied into smaller areas and focus on each in an organized sequence.
_____ involves reasoning from a general case that we know to be true to a specific instance.
According to Gardner's multiple intelligences, which of the following types of vocations would most likely require bodily kinesthetic intelligence?
You have to cook dinner for 30 people on Saturday. Your apartment is a mess and you have nothing to wear. You decide to do your laundry Thursday night, buy the groceries on Friday, clean the apartment Saturday morning, and cook the dinner Saturday evening. Preparing for the dinner party in this way is an example of
Twin studies by Trzaskowski and others in 2014 report that the heritability of intelligence is found to be as high as _____ percent.
Carlos believes that all of the people from another part of his town are snobs. He believes that the students from this area are rich and drive expensive sports cars to school. He is scheduled to perform with a few of these students in an all-county musical presentation. If he assumes that these particular students will also be rich and snobby, he is using
The ability to analyze, judge, evaluate, compare, and contrast are characteristics of _____ intelligence.
Carla is a first-semester freshman at State University. She succeeded in high school by cramming for exams and relying on parental pressure to get homework done. Now, however, she is finding that these strategies are no longer viable ways to succeed. In this case, Carla should
"think outside the box" in order to succeed in college
Lilly, a young girl, was isolated and severely abused during her childhood days. Because her parents never communicated with her in words, Lilly lacked exposure to language during her early childhood years. Although she was able to make some language advances while in extensive rehabilitation, Lilly, as an adult, still speaks in short, mangled two- or three-word sentences. This scenario suggests that language development
is influenced by the environment
If an intelligence test produces the same score over multiple administrations but it doesn't accurately measure intelligence, then the test is _____ but not _____.
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