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ch 8 questions
Terms in this set (25)
How did America's wartime experience underline the need for another national bank?
After the first national bank expired people were relying to state or Wildcat banks, which did not always have the money they loan backed with gold/silver, Which resulted in people buying on credit, which was not always a good thing, even though it gave the economy a jumpstart.
How did Congress propose to promote manufacturing in the United States?
They were going to impose a tariff so that british people couldn't dump goods for extremely cheap to kill the united states economy before it got started, and this outraged the south because they had to buy higher priced goods which lowered their profit.
How was transportation improved during this period? What serious gaps remained in the nation's transportation system?
Transportation improved through the use of turnpikes, improved steam engines, and the ability to have the state fund roads, although they often didn't. The Turnpikes expanded, and they started laying railroads, and creating canals. Serious gaps in this were there was hardly any transportation past the appalachian mountains.
What were the reasons for the so-called Great Migration
African Americans Attempting to escape racism and Jim Crow laws of the South, African-Americans found work in northern and western steel mills, tanneries, and railroad companies.
Population growth. Agricultural land in the east was occupied and in some cases exhausted. Following the war, the federal government continued policies of pushing Native tribes farther west opening up opportunities for settlement. (222)
What were the characteristics of life among white settlers in the Old Northwest?
The years following the War of 1812 saw a massive migration of white settlers into the Old Northwest, the Old Southwest and the Far West.
Small farmers and settlers moved to occupy the fertile lands wrested from Native tribes through a series of land treaties and the factor system, by which government agents supplied tribes with goods at cost and drove Canadian traders from the region. White settlers arrived on flatboats with all of their possessions and left the river to travel overland with wagons, handcarts, packhorses, cattle, and hogs.
How did life in the Old Southwest differ from that in other sections of the country?
The principal attraction was cotton as uplands in the Old South had lost much of their fertility through overplanting and erosion. The Black Belt of central AL and MS contained dark, productive soil and encouraged ambitious farmers to migrate. The growth of Southern settlement spread cotton, plantations, and slavery. Large planters would follow the first arrivals of small farmers who would clear the land. Great caravans would mark the journey of the large planters with herds of livestock, wagonloads of household goods, long lines of slaves, and the planter's family riding in carriages
Who were the "mountain men"? Why were they important in the settlement of the West
Trappers who moved west from the Great Lakes region and began to establish themselves in what is now Utah and parts of N Mexico in search of furs and skins for trade. (223-4) They were important to the settlement of the West in the establishment of commerce and the fact that they lived peaceably and successfully with Native Americans and Mexicans whose lands they shared. Many married Indian or Hispanic women. (224)
Explain the perception that easterners had of the West.
Stories of trappers like Jedidiah S. Smith depicting disastrous battles with the Mojaves and other tribes became exaggerated and popular. More important were the explorers dispatched by the US government with instructions to chart the territories they visited. Stephen H. Long (1819-20) led a group through what is now NE, CO, & KS and wrote an influential report on his trip including an assessment of the region's potential for future settlement and development.
Why were the leaders of New England disturbed at the nomination end election of James Monroe for president, and what did Monroe do to calm these fears?
Many in the North were expressing impatience with the so-called VA dynasty. Monroe was a citizen of great integrity having served in the Revolutionary War, as a diplomat, and as Sec of State. In his cabinet selection, he took pains to offer positions to northerners and southerners, easterners and westerners, Federalists and Republicans, including his choice of Sec of State, former Federalist and New Englander John Quincy Adams. (225) (Sec of State had become de facto training ground for the Presidency.)
. Why was Florida such a problem for Americans in the South, and how did Andrew Jackson make the resolution of the problem an absolute necessity?
Florida was home to the Seminole Indians who continually raided American territories. Jackson had order from Sec of War Calhoun to "adopt necessary measures" to stop continuing raids on American territory. (225) Jackson's raid demonstrated to the Spanish that the US could easily take FL by force.
What were the critical points decided by the Adams-Onís negotiations?
Spain ceded all of FL to the US and gave up claim to territory north of 42nd parallel in Pacific NW. In return, the American government gave up its claims to TX.
What were the causes of the Panic of 1819?
The rising prices of farm goods had stimulated a land boom in the western US. Fueled by speculative investments, land prices soared. The availability of easy credit to settlers and speculators- from the government land acts of 1800 and 1804, state banks, wildcat banks, even the 2nd B.U.S.- fueled the land boom. In 1819, new management at the national bank began tightening credit, calling loans, and foreclosing mortgages, precipitating a series of bank failures at the state level.
What were the major elements of disagreement in the debate over the admission of Missouri into the Union?
Slavery. The proposed Tallmadge amendment sought to prohibit the further introduction of slaves into MO and provide for the emancipation of those already there. (226)
What was the Missouri Compromise?
Maine would be admitted as a free state and Missouri as a slave state to maintain a balance of power in government. Senator Jesse B Thomas of Illinois proposed an amendment prohibiting slavery in the LA purchase territory north of the southern boundary of MO (36-30 parallel).(226-7) Nationalists must have believed that the Union was preserved. Others were less optimistic and foresaw that conflict would reemerge as the issue of slavery was far from being resolved.
What was the net effect of the opinions delivered by the Marshall Court? How did these opinions reflect John Marshall's philosophy of government?
Marshall molded the development of the Constitution by strengthening the judicial branch at the expense of the executive and legislative branches and increasing the power of the federal government at the expense of the states. Finally, he advanced the interests of propertied and commercial classes through the promotion of commerce and defending the inviolability of contracts. His opinions reflected his philosophies of the importance of strong, central government. (227)
What was the long-range significance of the case of Gibbons v. Ogden?
The Court strengthened Congress's power to regulate interstate commerce. This and similar decisions established federal primacy over states, which would blunt criticism of the Court. (228)
How was it that the United States' proclamation of neutrality in the wars between Spain and its colonies actually aided the colonies? Why did the United States do this?
It implied partial recognition of the rebels' status as nations. The US also sold ships and supplies to the revolutionaries. Essentially the enactment of the Monroe Doctrine was for the purpose of keeping European powers at bay with respect to the Americas and another sign of the growing nationalism in the United States in the 1820s. (229)
Who were the candidates in the election of 1824? What was the platform of each?
Sec of Treasury William H. Crawford of Georgia, Sec of State John Quincy Adams, Speaker of the House Henry Clay of KY, Senator and war hero Andrew Jackson of TN (230)
What was the outcome of the election of 1824? How was that result arrived at, and what part did Henry Clay play in it?
Jackson received more popular and electoral votes, but not a majority. Adams wins -> The 12th amendment required the House to choose between the 3 most popular candidates. Jackson and Clay were rivals, so Clay supported Adams and his endorsement helped Adams win. (230)
What was the "corrupt bargain," and why did it take place?
Following the election outcome that seemed unfair to the Jacksonians, Adams appoints Clay secretary of state, a position which had become a well established route to the Presidency.(230)
What did John Quincy Adams plan to accomplish during his presidency? Was he successful? Why or why not?
He proposed an ambitious nationalist policy similar to Clay's American System -> promoting home markets through protective tariff, strengthening the national bank, and financing internal improvements. The Jacksonians in Congress blocked most of it. (230-1)
What problems brought on the tariff debates of 1827 and 1828? What was the outcome of these tariff debates, and why was it that few were pleased with these results?
In NE, woolen manufacturers requested a new tariff as Britain was dumping textiles on the American market at artificially low rates. In an effort to gain the support of middle and western states, the administration had to accept duties on other items. In the process, it antagonized the original NE supporters of the bill. The benefits of protecting now had to be weighed against the prospects of having to pay more for raw goods. (231)
How had Andrew Jackson's supporters prepared for the election of 1828? What were the issues in the campaign, and what was the outcome?
Jackson's supporters started to call themselves the Democratic Republicans who called for an assault on privilege and a widening of opportunity. Supporters of Adams called themselves the National Republicans. Issues counted for little as the campaign degenerated into a war of personal invective. Jackson's victory was decisive, but sectional.
Who were the National Republicans? Who were their leaders? What programs did they support, and from what areas did they draw their strength?
Adams' supporters who supported the economic nationalism of the preceding years. They were largely made up of remaining Federalists. Adams showed strength in the campaign by winning virtually all of New England and parts of the mid-Atlantic region.
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