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Communications Exam 2
Terms in this set (29)
includes the task and social dimension of the discussion, "the discussion"
how interaction is organized, reminders to get back on track, is essentially communication
Methods of introducing structure into group discussion
-All of this is group throughput, including V and NV messages
Types of agenda items
Discussion items (sharing and analyzing)
-critical analysis and conflict
Action items (doing)
-decisions, voting, volunteering, assigning etc
Information items (telling)
-"FYI", not discussed
Acknowledge quiet members, managing dominant talkers, does not necessarily need to be the facilitators of the meeting
-Ex: "We haven't heard from that side of the table yet..."
Messages that refer to other messages
-Introduce structure to your group
No information in the statements but they prompt info
-Ex: "What is next on the agenda?" "Didn't we already cover that point?"
-Always verbal messages, refocus discussion on the task and refer back to something or the next thing
Assigned roles not assumed, recognized and establish order, may allow status
-Ex: committee chair, facilitator, project coordinator
Includes task roles, maintenance role, and individual roles.
The "task" roles
-Task roles help us get the work done and contribute to finishing the discussion
The "maintenance" roles
-Maintenance roles are helping us maintain positive social climate
The "individual" roles
-Individual roles are messages that focus attention on personal needs. Counterproductive because it takes away focus from the task or maintenance of the group.
A leader-follower influence process, directed toward change, the reflects mutual purposes of group members and is largely accomplished through competent communication
Two essential functions of leadership
bring structures (task) and they bring personal consideration (social)
Low Power Distance
need a leader but not necessarily want them to have more power, acknowledge and respect the leader but want more equal input from them
-Leader is more like a spokesperson
High Power Distance
want a leader and are willing to listen to the leader and be a subordinate, expect to be told what to do
-The leader is regarded as the boss
Phases of Emergent Leadership
Phase 1: you're out
Phase 2: who's left?
Phase 1: you're out
First members to go are quiet members, too much irrelevant self-disclosure, overly aggressive, too dogmatic, and lastly unskilled, uninformed and unintelligent.
Phase 2: "Who's left?"
Look for positive personal style, good listeners, solution-oriented, has a lieutenant to advocate for them, then you think and discuss until there is only one person left.
task vs. process functions
-is based on the division of informal roles
-task oriented behaviors aim specifically at accomplishing a group goal,
-process leadership (maintenance) help maintain a satisfactory interpersonal climate in a group
a balance between task and relationship, group members are usually happy
leader cares about task only, relationships are not important at all
leaders is more of an equal to everyone, employs strategic structure when needed, usually regarded as "hands off"
style switching between the main 3 styles, have to be able to adapt and choose depending on the task, they constantly adapt to group needs, the novelty and complexity of the task, they have organizational exception and resources.
Conflict about ideas vs. Conflict about people
Conflict about ideas: disagreements over opinions and task dimension, but leads to more discussion so it is beneficial
Conflict about people: bad because it is when members don't get along, social dimension.
The value of conflict in groups
Increases discussion over topics
the illusion of agreement exhibited by group members who try to minimize conflict and reach consensus without critically testing, analyzing and evaluating ideas.
Causes of groupthink
Biological pressure to conform to what others agree with, lone voices are not seen as credible, social pressure,
Predictors of Groupthink
Highly esteemed leader, authoritative leader and large group size encourages groupthink, excessive cohesiveness, homogeneity, apathy towards the task, lower expectations of success, highly qualified member.
How to reduce groupthink
Be sensitive to status differences, technology and written feedback, Devil's advocate, subdivide large groups.
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