A&P CH 12 Central Nervous System, Brain
Terms in this set (62)
arise from expansion of the lumen cavity of the embryonic neural tube. They are continuous with one another and with the central canal of the spinal cord.
they are two of them within each cerebral hemispheres, they are large C-shaped chambers that reflect the pattern of cerebral growth
Below the Lateral Ventricles located in the diencephalon
Connects the Lateral Ventricles to the Third Ventricle
The third ventricle is continuous with the fourth ventricle via the canal like structure that runs through the midbrain
lies in the hindbrain dorsal to the pons and superior medulla. It is continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord.
markings- The paired lateral apertures in the side walls...
and the median aperture in its roof.
is a protective mechanism that helps maintain homeostasis in the brain.
Bloodborne substances in the brains capillaries must pass through
1. the endothelium of the capillary wall
2. a relatively thick basal lamina surrounding the external face of each capillary
3. the bulbous "feet" of the astrocytes clinging to the capillaries
are three connective tissue membranes that lie just external to the CNS. From external to internal they are the dura mater, arachnoid mater, and pia mater
1. They cover and protect the CNS
2. Protect blood vessels and enclose venous sinuses
3. Contain cerebrospinal fluid
4. Form partitions in the skull.
surrounds the brain it is a two layered sheet of fibrous CT.
-The more superficial periosteal layer is attached to the inner surface of the skull.
-The deeper meningeal layer forms the true external covering of the brain
a large sickle-shaped fold that dips into the longitudinal fissure between the cerebral hemispheres. Anteriorly it attaches to the crista galli of the ethmoid bone.
forms a loose brain covering, without dipping into the sulci at the vertebral surface. It is separated from the dura mater by the subdural space. Beneath the arachnoid membrane is the subarachnoid space. There are weblike extensions spanning this space and secure the AM to underlying pia mater.
is filled with CSF and contains the largest blood vessels serving the brain.
are knoblike projections of the arachnoid mater that protrude superiorly through the dura mater and into the superior sagittal sinus.CSF is absorbed into the venous blood of the sinus by these villi.
is composed of delicate CT and is richly invested with tiny blood vessels. It clings tightly to the brain it is following every convolution.
form the superior part of the brain
Nearly the entire surface of the cerebral hemispheres is marked by elevated ridges called
Nearly the entire surface of the cerebral hemispheres is marked by elevated ridges called gyri that are separated by shallow grooves called
Deep grooves called________ separate large regions of the brain
transverse cerebral fissure separates
cerebral hemisphere from the cerebellum
median longitudinal fissure separates
separates the frontal lobe from the parietal lobe.
occipital lobe is separated from the parietal lobe by the
is buried deep within the lateral sulcus and forms part of its floor the ______is covered by portions of the temporal parietal and frontal lobes.
is the executive suite of the nervous system, where our conscious mind is found. It enables us to be aware of ourselves and our sensations, to communicate, remember and understand and to initiate voluntary movements. It is composed of
control voluntary movement lie in the posterior part of the frontal lobes.
Primary motor cortex (somatic):
is located in the frontal lobe. Pyramidal cells in the gyri allow us to consciously control the precise or skilled voluntary movements of our skeletal muscles. They have long axons which project to the spinal cord.
just anterior to the recentral gyrus in the frontal lobe. Controls learned motor skills of repetitious or patterned nature. It coordinates the movement of several muscle groups simultaneously or sequentially
lies anterior to the inferior region of the premotor area. It is considered to be present in one hemisphere only (usually left side) and special motor speech area that directs muscles involved in speech production.
are concerned with conscious awareness of sensation. The sensory areas of the cortex occur in the parietal, insular, temporal and occipital lobes
Primary somatosensory cortex
resides in the post central gyrus of the parietal lobe. Neurons receive info from the general sensory receptors in the skin and the skeletal muscles, joints, and tendons.
connect corresponding gray areas of the two hemispheres enabling them to function as a coordinated whole. The largest commissure is the corpus callosum which lies superior to the lateral ventricles within the longitudinal fissure
connect different parts of the same hemisphere. short association fibers connect adjacent gyri. Long association fibers are bundled into tracts and connect different cortical lobes.
either enter the cerebral cortex from lower brain or cord centers, or descend from the cortex to lower areas. Sensory info is projected from these fibers. They tie the cortex to the rest of the nervous system and to receptors and effectors.
Basal nuclei( basal ganglia)
are deep within the white matter. The caudate nucleus, putamen, and globus pallidus constitute most of the mass of each group.
form the central core of the forebrain and surrounded by the cerebral hemispheres. Made up of 3 structures, these gray matter areas collectively enclose the third ventricle
consists of bilateral egg shaped nuclei, which form the superolateral walls of the 3rd ventricle. It is the relay station for info coming into the vertebral cortex.
caps the brain stem and forms the inferolateral walls of the 3rd ventricle. It extends from the optic chiasma to the posterior margin of the mammillary bodies. Between these is a stalk of hypothalamic tissue that connects the pituitary gland to the base off the hypothalamus. It is the main visceral control center of the body
1. Autonomic control: regulates the ANS activity by controlling the activity of cnters in the brain stem and spinal cord.
2. Center for emotional response: it lies at the "heart" of the limbic system. Acts to initiate most physical expressions of emotion.
3. Body temperature regulation: initiates sweating or shivering as needed.
4. Regulation of food intake
5. Regulation of water balance and thirst.
6. Regulation of sleep-wake ccles.
7. Control of endocrine system functioning.
is the most dorsal portion of the diencephalon and forms the roof of the 3rd ventricle. Extending from its posterior border and visible externally is the pineal gland. This gland secretes the hormone melatonin
located between the diencephalon and the pons. On its ventral aspect two bulging cerebral peducles form vertical pillars that seem to hold up the cerebreum
Nuclei are scattered in the surrounding white matter of the midbrain, the largest of these are the __________, which raises four domelike protrusions on the dorsal midbrain surface.
are visual reflex centers that coordinate head and eye movements when we visually follow a moving object.
are part of the auditory relay from the hearing receptors . they act in reflexive responses to sound.
They are two pigmented nuclei located deep in the cerebral peduncle. The NT dopamine is released by these neurons.
oval red nucleus
lies deep to the substantia nigra. Its reddish hue is due to is blood supply and the iron in its neurons. They are relay nuclei to some descending motor pathways that effect limb flexion.
is the bulging brain stem region between the midbrain and medulla oblongata. Pons is chiefly composed of conduction tracts oriented in two different directions. The deep projections fibers run longitudinally and complete the pathway between higher brain centers and the spin
middle cerebellar peduncles
The more superficial ventral fibers are oriented transversely and dorsally. They form the _______ and connect the pons bilaterally with the cerebellum.
is the most inferior part of the brain stem. It blends with the spinal cord at the level of the foramen magnum. Flanking the midline on the medullas ventral aspect are two longitudinal ridges called pyramids, these are formed by the large pyramidal tracts descending from the motor cortex.
decussation of the pyramids
Just above the medulla spinal junction most of these fibers cross over to the opposite side before continuing into the spinal cord. This crossover point is called the
11% of brain mass. It protrudes under the occipital lobes and is separated by the transverse cerebral fissure. It provides the precise timing and appropriate patterns of skeletal muscles contraction for smooth coordinated movements and agility. It has two hemispheres that are connected medially by the wormlike Vermis.
is a group of structures located on the medial aspect of each cerebral hemisphere and diencephalon. It encircles the upper part of the brain stem
Limbic System role
our emotional and affective brain. Two parts seem especially important in emotions. The amygdale and the cingulated gyrus
extends through the central core of the medulla pons and midbrain. It is composed of loosely clustered neurons in what is otherwise white matter. These neurons form 3 broad columns along the length of the brain stem.
1. the Midline raphe nuclei which is flanked laterally by
2. the medial (large cell) group and
3. the lateral (small cell) group
reticular activating system (RAS)
Neuons unless inhibited by other brain areas send continuous streams of impulses to the cerebral cortex keeping it alert can enhance excitability
is the motor grogram to produce movement for speech
language comprehension, found in the temporal lobe
is the storage and retrieval of information
Factors affecting memory
Emotional state, Rehearsal, Association, Automatic memory
Declarative (fact )memory
entails learning explicit info such as names faces words and dates, related to our conscious thoughts and ability to manipulate symbols and language.
is less conscious or even unconscious learning. These kinds of memory are acquired through experience and usually repetition.
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