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140 terms

PGS 101 associative learning

Associative learning
Associative learning
learning that certain events occur together; the events may be 2 stimuli (classical conditioning) or a response and its stimulus (operant conditioning)
2 types of associative learning
classical conditioning, operant conditioning
the process of learning associations
classical conditioning
a learned association between 2 stimuli, and to anticipate events
unconditioned response (UCR)
unlearned response that is automatic and require no learning - a reflex
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
a stimulus that automatically produces the UCR
conditioned stimulus (CS)
a stimulus associated with UCS through learning
Pavolv's experiments
wnated to know ow much saliva dogs would produce in response to eating but he found that after a while dogs produce saliva before they are given food. Before conditioning food in mouth -> salivation; neutral stimulus (tone)-> no salivation; during-food and tone together->salivation; after-tone->salivation
5 processes in classical conditioning
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination
the initial stage of classical conditioning where there is repeated presentation of CS & UCS pair (CS should precede UCS by .5 sec)
CR disappears after repeated presentations of CS alone (if nothing happens)
spontaneous recovery
after rest, CS will produce CR, indicating that teaching was retained
the tendency once a response has been conditioned for stimuli similar to the CS to elicit a similar response (baby albert)
only associating the UCS with the CS
exceptions to the rules of classical conditioning
taste aversion, thinking and expectation
taste aversion
learning occurs with only 1 trial and a long delay; you learn to associate feeling sick with a certain food
thinking and expectation
associations dont always produce learning because the person or animal may not always see that the 2 stimuli are related which leads to no response
Operant conditioning
learning associating between actions or behavior and consequences; response -> consequence -> response strengthened; behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher
law of effect
rewarded behavior will reoccur; behaviors followed by favorable consequences become more likely and behaviors followed by unfavorable consequences become less likely
E.L. Throndike
discovered the law of effect using puzzle boxes; we continue to repeat actions that are rewarded; put cats in puzzle boxes and timed the amount of time took to escape
B.F. Skinner
extended throndike's thinking and methods; he built an operant chamber or 'skinner box' used to study operant conditioning on rats; dispenser in chamber connected to lever -> food
method of successive approximations
reward when (using skinner box example): 1. on one side of the cage 2. near bar 3. touching bar 4. pressing bar; reward for more specific things over time getting closer to desired behavior
any event that strengthens the behavior it follows
types of reinforcement
positive/ negative, primary/ secondary, immediate/ delayed
positive reinforcement
increasing behavior by presenting positive reinforers-any stimulus that when presented after a response strengthens that response; add desirable stimulus ex: getting a hug, receiving a paycheck
negative reinforcement
increasing behaviors by stopping or reducing negative stimuli - any stimulus that when removed after a response strengthens the response; removing an aversive stimulus; ex: buckling seat belt to turn off the beeping
primary reinforcement
immediate and unlearned reinforcement; such as one that satisfies a biological need ex: food, water
secondary reinforcement
reinforcement acquired thought learning; ex: value of money
immediate reinforcement
even small rewards can have a strong effect when presented immediately
delayed reinforcement
large rewards can have a weak effect when they are delayed; taking a long time to get an award may lead to decreased importance
types of reinforcement schedules
predictable, unpredictable
predictable reinforcement schedules lead to
fast learning and fast extinction
unpredictable reinforcement schedules lead to
slow learning and slow or no extinction
ratio schedules (partial reinforcement)
fixed ratio, variable ratio
fixed ratio
reinforcement given after a fixed number of responses. Ex: piecework pay, commission pay
variable ratio
reinforcement given after a variable number of responses. ex: gambling, fishing
interval schedules (partial reinforcement)
fixed interval, variable interval
fixed interval
reinforcement given to the 1st response after a fixed amount of time ex: pay day, exams-rewarded for performance of that day
variable interval
reinforcement given to the 1st response after a variable amount of time. ex: training a dog to go out to the bathroom after owner gets home from work, pop quiz
aversive consequence that decreases behavior it follows
criticisms of punishment
desired behavior is not taught, punished behavior is not forgotten, teaches how to avoid punishment, may teach anger and aggression
latent learning
learning without reinforcement or reward that doesn't show until there is an incentive to demonstrate it
over justification
rewarding enjoyable tasks may produce disinterest. ex: basket ball players not enjoying playing after being payed millions of $
biological predispositions
behaviors that are more closely associated with reward are more easily learned
our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances
the process of acquiring new and relatively enduring information or behaviors
any event or situation that evokes a response
cognitive learning
acquisition of mental information, whether by observing events by watching others or through language
the view that psychology should be (1) an objective science that (2) studies behavior without reference to mental processes; most psychologists agree with 1 but not 2.
neutral stimulus
a stimulus that elicits no response before conditioning
higher order conditioning
a procedure in which the CS in one conditioning experience is paired with a new neutral stimulus, creating a second (often weaker) conditioned stimulus
reinforcers are used to guide behavior toward closer and closer approximations of the desired behavior
steps to reinforce desired behaviors
1. state goal in measurable terms and announce it 2. monitor how often you engage in desired behavior 3. reinforce desired behavior 4. reduce rewards gradually as behaviors become habitual
respondent behavior
occurs as automatic response to stimulus
operant behavior
operates on environment producing consequences
biological constraints
predispose organisms to learn associations that are naturally adaptive
cognition's influence on conditioning
in classical conditioning it is not just the cs us association that leads to response, but also the thought
cognitive map
a mental representation of the layout of one's environment
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform behavior effectively for its own sake
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior to receive promised rewards or avoid threatened punishment
Bandura's bobo doll study (1961)
by watching a model we experience vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment and learn to anticipate a behavior's consequences in situations like those we observe
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that some scientists believe fire when performing certain actions or when observing others doing so. enables imitation and empathy
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior
a need or desire that directs and energizes our behavior towards a goal
3 types of motivation
instinct, drive reduction, optimum arousal
automatic, uncontrolled and unlearned behavior. ex: birds making nests
drive reduction
physiological needs create a drive to satisfy that need; more human behaviors are motivated by drive reduction than by instincts; need->drive-> drive reducing behaviors
optimum arousal
everyone has a preferred level of arousal that they are motivated to attain; if you have a high level of optimum arousal you will be motivated to do more to attain it
Maslow's hierarchy of motives
pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must be met 1st before higher level safety needs & then psychological needs become active
our most basic need; overpowers any other need; hungry individuals will lose other motivations
anorexia nervosa
severe dieting that results in being more than %15 underweight while still feeling overweight; 90% are female; 1 in 200 middle/upper class women
bulimia nervosa
binge-purge eating that results in weight fluctuations, but not necessarily underweight; 5% of college males & 19% of college females; may be genetic; men work out while women throw up
female body image
women see themselves as fatter than ideal which leads to eating disorders
sexual motivation
all animals have a strong desire toward sex
Masters and Johnson (1966) sexual response cycle
excitement (blood flows to genitals)->plateau (sensitivity & excitement peak)->orgasm (all body contractions, sexual release) ->resolution (blood leaves genitals, refractory phase)
external stimuli
environment influences sexual motivation through erotic stimuli
imagined stimuli
dreams and fantasies can be a very strong sexual motivator
erotic stimuli and agression
mild pornography decreases aggression-> arousal + positive feelings = positive behavior; highly erotic pornography increases aggression->arousal + negative feelings (guilt, disgust)= negative behavior (aggressive)
drive reduction theory
an idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy a need
a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry around a particular level
a positive or negative environmental stimulus that motivates behavior
physiology of hunger
the body keeps tabs on its available resources
the form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major sources of energy for body tissues; when its level is low we feel hunger
hypothalamus and hunger
performs body maintenance functions such as control of hunger
set point
the point that an individuals weight thermostat is supposedly set. when the body falls below this weight an increase in hunger and lowered metabolic rate acts to restore lost weight
basal metabolic rate
body's reseting rate of energy expenditure
biological influences of hunger
hypothalamic centers in the brain monitoring appetite, appetite hormones, stomach pangs, weight set/ settling point, attracting to sweet and salty tastes, adaptive wariness to novel food
psychological influences of hunger
sight and smell of food, variety of foods available, memory of time elapsed since last meal, stress and mood, unit of food size
sociocultural influences of hunger
culturally learned taste preferences, responses to cultural preference for appearance
obesity and weight control
> 1 billion people are over weight; 300 million of them are morbidly obese
sexual disorder
a problem that impairs sexual arousal of functioning
sex hormones such as estradiol, secreted in greater amounts in females and contributes to female sex characteristics
most important male sex hormone. additional testosterone in men stimulates the growth of male sex organs in the fetus and development of sex characteristics during puberty
biological influences of sexual motivation
sexual maturity, sex hormones, sexual orientation
psychological influences of sexual motivation
exposure to stimulating conditions, sexual fantasies
socio cultural influences of sexual motivation
family and society values, religious and personal values, cultural expectations, media
sexual orientation
an enduring sexual attraction toward members of one's own or opposite sex.
the need to belong
social bonds may be a part of survival (boosted ancestors survival rate), wanting to belong (behavior aims to increase belonging),sustaining relationships, pain of ostracism
sustaining relationships
familiarity breeds liking, when something threatens social ties anxiety, guilt, loneliness or jealousy may overwhelm us.
pain of ostracism
social exclusion threatens ones need to belong; those excluded are more likely to engage in self defeating behaviors and underperform on aptitude tests, display less empathy and more aggression
a completely involved, focused state of consciousness with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement of ones skills; boosts our sense of self esteem, competence, and well being
personnel psychology
focuses on employee recruitment, selection, placement, training, appraisal and development
organizational psychology
examines organizational influences on worker satisfaction and productivity and facilitates organizational change
human factors psychology
explores hoe people and machines interact and how machines and physical environments can be made safe and easy to use.
industrial organizational psychology
the application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in work places; field of psychology dedicated to creating productive work environments
3 subfields of organizational psychology
personnel, organizational, human factors
structured interviews
interview process that asks the same job-relevant questions of all applicants, each of whom is rates on established scales
appraising performance
methods of performance appraisal: checklists, graphic rating scales, behavior rating scales
achievement motivation
a desire for significant accomplishments; for mastery of skills or ideas, for rapidly attaining a high standard
the passionate dedication to an ambitious, long term goal
3 types of employees
engaged, not engaged, actively disengaged
engaged employees
working with passion and feeling a profound connection to their company or organization
not engaged employees
putting in the time but investing little passion or energy into their work
actively disengaged
unhappy workers undermining what their colleagues accomplish
path to organizational success
identify strengths->match to work-> positive managing-> engaged employees-> loyal customers, growth, profits
leadership styles
task leadership, social leadership
task leadership
goal oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
social leadership
group oriented leadership that builds teamwork, and focuses attention on goals
the human factor psychologists
help to design appliances, machines, and work settings that fit our natural inclinations; designers should consider human abilities and behaviors by designing things to fit people
achievement motivation
a drive to succeed; individuals with high achievement motivation are persistent, & disciplined when approaching challenging tasks
testing achievement motivation
play ring toss game; where you stand indicates your level of motivation. right over post=guaranteed success, low achievement motivation. farther away=challenging, boundary of success, high motivation. far as possible=guaranteed failure, low motivation
low achievement motivation
will choose easy tasks that guarantee success without effort or will choose hard tasks in which failure will not carry shame
high achievement motivation
will choose moderately difficult tasks that will challenge them but will also bring honor with success
developmental stages of achievement motivation
infancy, early childhood, adolescence
infancy achievement motivation
infants have an instinctive drive to exert change on their environment; toys they play with often promote high achievement motivation because they teach about cause and effect.
early childhood achievement motivation
young children like to imitate the effective behaviors of other people; they like to imitate adults who are working to make things happen-they are learning about working
adolescent - adulthood achievement motivation
internal values channel energy towards excellence
2 types of motivation
extrinsic, intrinsic
extrinsic motivation
the drive to succeed is based on desire to obtain rewards such as money or grades; it can be a powerful motivation because people will often do anything for money; may sometimes push people away from what they love to do
intrinsic motivation
drive to succeed is based on a love of what you are doing and a desire to do your best; more powerful than extrinsic and leads to more success than extrinsic motivation does
extrinsic vs intrinsic motivation experiment
preschool children who enjoy drawing are divided into 2 groups: 1. receives reward for drawing 2, does not receive reward for drawing. found that the no reward group drew for a longer period of time than the reward group. intrinsic motivation is stronger
additional evidence for power of intrinsic vs extrinsic motivation
couples reminded of the rewards from their partners report less love; people paid to help others are less likely to offer help; kids given extrinsic reasons to play with another kid will be less likely to play with the kid later.
ways parents foster high motivation in children
1. encouraging independence: teaches a cognitive source for success; success is a function of ones own efforts; if i work i will succeed. 2. employing praise: teaches an emotional source for success; they associate with good feelings;-> adults that want to achieve to feel good about themselves
ways to foster high achievement motivation in employees
cultivate intrinsic motivation, attend to motives, set clear goals, choose an appropriate leadership style, believe in people
cultivating intrinsic motivation
intrinsically motivated employees perform well because they love their job and attribute success or failure to their efforts. 1. trigger curiosity b/c interesting tasks are more intrinsically enjoyable 2. avoid extrinsic rewards b/c they only work when presented & undermine intrinsic motivation
attending to motives
individuals are motivated by different things and should be given different things. those motivated by: achievement need new tasks; recognition need attention; affiliation need group work; power need competition
setting clear goals
specific goals promote high achievement. failure to meet clear, reasonable goals will be attributed to lack of effort, rather than external causes; leads to internalization and harder working employees
choosing an appropriate leadership style
different managers, tasks & employees require different leadership styles. 2 types: task leadership, social leadership. good leaders should adopt both styles
believing in people
every manager make 1 of 2 assumptions: 1. their employes are lazy and error prone. 2. their employees are motivated to succeed; which -> high achievement motivation
how to motivate yourself
do what you love, associate with people who foster success, set clear goals, believe in yourself