Upgrade to remove ads
Technology in Action CH 5
Terms in this set (86)
Application Programming Interface (API)
A set of software routines that allows one software system to work with another.
The process of identifying a computer user, based on a login or username and password. The computer system determines whether the computer user is authorized and what level of access is to be granted on the network.
Basic Input/Output System (BIOS)
A program that manages the data between a computer's operating system and all the input and output devices attached to the computer; also responsible for loading the operating system (OS) from its permanent location on the hard drive to random access memory (RAM).
The process for loading the operating system (OS) into random access memory (RAM) when the computer is turned on.
The smallest increment in which data is stored on hard disks; hard disks are divided into tracks; then wedges; then sectors; then clusters.
Interface between user and computer in which the user enters commands to communicate with the computing system.
Primary working area
Software that facilitates the communication between a device and its operating system or between a network adapter and a server's operating system and the operating system of the computer in which the adapter is installed.
A hierarchical structure that includes files, folders, and drives used to create a more organized and efficient computer.
A Windows utility that removes unnecessary files from the hard drive.
Disk Defragmentation Distribution (Distros)
The process of regrouping related pieces of files on the hard drive, enabling faster retrieval of the data.
The result of an action, such as the keystroke, mouse click, or signal to the printer, in the respective device (keyboard, mouse, or printer) to which the operating system responds.
Extension (File Type)
In a file name, the three letters that follow the user-supplied file name after the dot (.); the extension identifies what kind of family of files the file belongs to, or which application should be used to read the file.
A collection of related pieces of information stored together for easy reference.
File Compression Utility
A program that takes out redundancies in a file in order to reduce the file size.
The main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer by showing the location and contents of every drive, folder, and file; called Windows Explorer prior to Windows 8.
A Windows utility that automatically creates a duplicate of your libraries, desktop, contacts, and favorites and copies it to another storage device, such as an external hard drive.
The process by which humans or computer software provide organizational structure to a computer's contents.
The first part of the label applied to a file; generally a name a user assigns to the file when saving it.
The exact location of a file, starting with the drive in which the file is located and including all folders, subfolders (if any), the file name, and the extension (example: C:\Users\username\Documents\Illustrations\EBronte.jpg).
A collection of files stored on a computer.
Graphical User Interface (GUI)
Unlike the command-and-menu-driven interfaces used in earlier software, GUIs display graphics and use the point-and-click technology of the mouse and cursor, making them much more user friendly.
A signal that tells the operating system that it's in need of immediate attention.
A special numerical code that prioritizes requests from various devices. These requests then are placed in the interrupt table in the computer's primary memory.
Kernel (Supervisor Program)
The essential component of the operating system that's responsible for managing the processor and all other components of the computer system. Because it stays in random access memory (RAM) the entire time the computer is powered on, the kernel is called memory resident.
An open-source operating system based on UNIX. Because of the stable nature of this operating system, it's often used on web servers.
The first commercially available operating system to incorporate a graphic user interface (GUI) with user-friendly point-and-click technology.
A user interface in which the user chooses a command from menus displayed on the screen.
Registered user profile with specific user id and password to log into Windows account from any machine and access familiar desktop and applications.
The ability of an operating system to perform more than one process at a time.
Multiuser Operating System (Network Operating System)
An operating system that enables more than one user to access the computer system at one time by efficiently juggling all the requests from multiple users.
Operating System (OS)
The system software that controls the way in which a computer system functions, including the management of hardware, peripherals, and software.
The process of swapping data or instructions that have been placed in the swap file for later use back into active random access memory (RAM). The contents of the hard drive's swap file then become less active data or instructions.
The backslash mark (\) used by Microsoft Windows and DOS in file names. Mac files use a colon (:), and UNIX and Linux use the forward slash (/) as the path separator.
The process through which you choose which applications are visible on the Windows Start screen.
The combination of a computer's operating system and processor. The two most common platform types are the PC and the Apple.
Plug and Play (PnP)
The technology that enables the operating system, once it is booted up, to recognize automatically any new peripherals and to configure them to work with the system.
The first job the basic input/output system (BIOS) performs, ensuring that essential peripheral devices are attached and operational. This process consists of a test on the video card and video memory, a BIOS identification process (during which the BIOS version, manufacturer, and data are displayed on the monitor), and a memory test to ensure memory chips are working properly.
When the operating system processes the task assigned a higher priority before processing a task that has been assigned to a lower priority.
Real-Time Operating System (RTOS)
A program with a specific purpose that must guarantee certain response times for particular computing tasks or else the machine's application is useless. Real-time operating systems are found in many types of robotic equipment.
A folder on a Windows desktop in which deleted files from the hard drive are held until permanently purged from the system.
Reset this PC
A utility program in Windows 10 that attempts to diagnose and fix errors in Windows system files that are causing a computer to behave improperly.
A portion of the hard drive containing all the different configurations (settings) used by the Windows operating system as well as by other applications.
The top level of filing structure in a computer system. In Windows computers, the root directory of the hard drive is represented as C:\.
A section of a hard drive platter, wedge-shaped from the center of the platter to the edge.
A program that helps coordinate all print jobs being sent to the printer at the same time.
A feature in Windows 10 that provides access to all applications in one convenient screen.
Swap File (Page File)
A temporary storage area on the hard drive where the operating system "swaps out" or moves the data or instructions from the random access memory (RAM) that haven't recently been used. This process takes place when more RAM space is needed.
The main files of an operating system.
A utility in Windows that restore system settings to a specific previous date when everything was working properly.
System Restore Point
In Windows, a snapshot of your entire system's settings used for restoring your system to a prior point in time.
In later versions of Windows operating systems, a feature that displays open and favorite applications for easy access.
Used to check on the program that is not working properly or exit a non-responsive program.
A condition of excessive paging in which the operating system becomes sluggish.
A concentric circle that serves as a storage area on a hard drive platter.
An operating system originally conceived in 1969 by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie of AT&T's Bell Labs. In 1974, the UNIX code was rewritten in the standard programming language C. Today there are various commercial versions of UNIX.
Part of the operating system that enables individuals to interact with the computer.
A small program that performs many of the general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as the system maintenance and file compression.
A Windows 10 feature that allows you to organize groups of windows into different displays.
The space on the hard drive where the operating system stores data if there isn't enough random access memory to hold the programs you're currently trying to run.
Microsoft's operating system that incorporates a user-friendly, visual interface.
Newest release of Microsoft's operating system that provides an interface optimized for touch-screen devices and is designed to run across all devices: phones, tablets, laptops, and desktops.
Discuss the functions of the operating system.
- System software is the set of software programs that helps run the computer and coordinates instructions between application software and hardware devices. It consists of the operating system (OS) and utility programs.
- The OS controls how your computer system functions. It manages the computer's hardware, provides a means for application software to work with the CPU, and is responsible for the management, scheduling, and coordination of tasks.
- Utility programs are programs that perform general housekeeping tasks for the computer, such as system maintenance and file compression.
- Modern operating systems allow for multitasking - to perform more than one process at a time.
Explain the different kinds of operating systems for machines, networks, and business.
- Real-time operating systems (RTOSs) require no user intervention.
- A multiuser operating system (network operating system) provides access to a computer system by more than one user at a time.
- UNIX is a multiuser, multitasking OS that is used as a network OS, thought it can be used on PCs.
- Mainframes and supercomputers are specialty computers that require mainframe operating systems.
Explain the most common operating systems for personal use.
- Smartphones have their own specific operating systems, which allow the user to multitask.
- Some operating systems allow interaction with touch-screen interfaces.
- Gaming consoles use operating systems developed specifically for those particular devices.
- Microsoft windows is the most popular OS. The most recent release is Windows 10. The Mac OS, which is designed to work on Apple computers, and Linux is an open source OS based on UNIX and designed primarily for use on personal computers.
Explain how the operating system provides a means for users to interact with the computer.
- The OS provides a user interface that enables most users to interact with the computer.
- Most OSs today use a graphical user interface (GUI). Common features of GUIs include windows, menus, and icons.
Explain how the operating system helps manage hardware such as the processor, memory, storage, and peripheral devices.
- When the OS allows you to perform ore than one task at a time, it is multitasking. To provide for seamless multitasking, the OS controls the timing of the events on which the processor works.
- As the OS coordinates the activities of the processor, it uses RAM as a temporary storage area for instructions and the data processor needs. The OS coordinates the space allocations in RAM to ensure that there is enough space for the waiting instructions and data. If there isn't sufficient space in RAM for all the data and instructions, then the OS allocates on the hard drive, called virtual memory.
- The OS manages storage by providing a file management system that keeps track of the names and the locations of files and programs.
- Programs called device drivers facilitate communication between devices attached to the computer and the OS.
Explain how the operating system interacts with the application software.
- All software applications need to interact with the CPU. For programs to work with the CPU, they must contain code that the CPU recognizes.
- Rather than having the same blocks of code appear in each application, the OS includes the blocks of code to which software applications refer. These blocks of code are called application programming interfaces (APIs).
Discuss the process the operating system uses to start up the computer, and how errors in the boot process are handled.
- When you start your computer, it runs through a special process called the boot process.
- The boot process consists of four basic steps: (1) the basic input/output system (BIOS) is activated when the user powers on the CPU. (2) In the POST check, the BIOS verifies that all attached devices are in place. (3) The OS is loaded into RAM. (4) Configuration and customization settings are checked.
- An authentication process occurs at the end of the boot process to ensure an authorized user is entering the system.
- Sometimes errors occur in the boot process, or otherwise. Try rebooting the computer or resetting the computer if the problem persists.
Describe the main features of the Windows interface.
- In Windows 10, the Start menu provides access to your computer's apps, tools, and commonly used programs and the desktop is the main working area.
- You can customize the Start menu by pinning and resizing tiles and organizing tiles into groups.
- Virtual desktops are used to organize open programs into different working areas.
Summarize how the operating system helps keep your computer organized.
- Files and folders are organized in a hierarchical directory structure composed of drives, libraries, folders, subfolders, and files.
- The C: drive represents the hard drive and is whee most programs and files are stored.
- File Explorer is the main tool for finding, viewing, and managing the contents of your computer.
Summarize how to view, sort, name, and manage files and folders.
- File Explorer helps you manage your files and folders by showing the location and contents of every drive, folder, and file on your computer.
- There are specific rules to follow when naming files.
- The Recycle Bin is the temporary storage location for deleted files from the hard drive.
Summarize how file compression works.
- File compression reduces the size of a file by temporarily storing components of a file and then when the file is extracted (uncompressed) the removed components are brought back into the file.
Outline the tools used to enhance system productivity.
- Task Manager is used to exit non-responsive programs.
- Disk Cleanup removes unnecessary files from your hard drive. If not deleted periodically, these unnecessary files can slow down your computer.
- Disk Defragmentation rearranges fragmented data so that related file pieces are unified. When a disk is fragmented, it can slow down your computer.
Summarize the utilities used to backup and restore files and the computer system.
- File History automatically creates a duplicate of your hard drive (or parts of your hard drive) and copes it to another storage device, such as an external hard drive. You can use File History to recover deleted or corrupted files.
- System Restore lets you roll your system settings back to a specific date (restore point) when everything was working properly.
Describe the assistive technology utilities used to make the computer system easier.
- Windows Ease of Access Center includes tools that help adjust computer settings for those users with disabilities.
Which of the following would you not see on a Windows 10 Start menu?
c. All apps
d. Task View
d. Task View
When an OS processes tasks in a priority order, it is known as?
a. preemptive interrupting.
b. interruptive multitasking.
c. preemptive multitasking.
d. multitasking handling.
c. preemptive multitasking
An example of an open source OS is
b. OS X.
Which of the following is not considered an accessibility utility?
a. System Restore
d. Speech Recognition
a. System Restore
Special programs that facilitate communication between a device and the OS are called
b. device drivers.
c. utility programs.
d. hardware player.
b. device drivers.
A new feature in Windows 10 that is used to organize open windows into task-specific groups is called
a. Program Manager.
b. Virtual Desktops.
c. Snap Assist.
d. Task View.
b. Virtual Desktops.
Different versions of Linux are known as distros.
The power-on-self-test (POST) ensures all peripheral devices are attached and operational.
System restore points can only be created by Windows automatically on a regular schedule.
Files deleted from a flash drive are sent to the Recycle Bin and could be recovered, if necessary.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
CIS: Chapter 4
Technology in Action Chapter 7
Intro to Computer - Chapter 6
YOU MIGHT ALSO LIKE...
Technology in Action Chapter 5
Technology in Action Chapter 5
Ch 05: System Software: The Operating System, Util…
Technology in Action Chapter 5 Key terms
OTHER QUIZLET SETS
CIS 150 Mid-term
Technology in Action (ch. 5)