43 terms

Business Driven Information system Ch.6

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Terms in this set (...)

Transactional information
encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks
Analytical information
Encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks
Information granularity
Refers to the extent of detail within the information (fine and detailed or coarse and abstract)
Real-time information
immediate, up-to-date information
Real-time system
provides real-time information in response to requests
Data inconsistency
Occurs when the same data element has different values
Data integrity issues
occur when a system produces incorrect, inconsistent, or duplicate data
Data governance
refers to the overall management of the availability, usability, integrity, and security of company data
Metadate
Provides details about data
Database
Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
Data element
The smallest or basic unit of information
Data models
logical data structures that detail the relationships among data elements using graphics or pictures
Data dictionary
compiles all of the metadata about the data elements in the data model
Entity
a person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
Attribute (field, column)
The data elements associated with an entity
Record
A collection of related data elements
Primary key
A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identifies a given entity in a table
Foreign key
A primary key of one table that appears as an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship between the two tables
Physical view
deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
Logical view
Focuses on how users logically access information to meet their particular business needs
Information integrity
Measures the quality of information
Integrity constraint
rules that help ensure the quality of information
Password
provides authentication of the user
Access level
Determines who has access to the different types of information
Access control
determines types of user access, such as read-only access
Data-driven websites
an interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers through the use of a database
Data-driven website advantages
• Easy to manage content
• Easy to store large amounts of data
• Easy to eliminate human errors
Data warehouse
a logical collection of information - gathered from many different operational databases - that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
A process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a common set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse
Data mart
Contains a subset of data warehouse information
Dimension
a particular attribute of information
Cube
common term for the representation of multidimensional information
Data mining
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
Data-mining tools
use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information and infer rules from them that predict future behavior and guide decision making
Structured data
Data already in a database or a spreadsheet
Unstructured data
Data that do not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails, etc.
Text mining
analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences
Web mining
analyzes unstructured data associated with websites to identify consumer behavior and website navigation
Association detection
reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships
Statistical analysis
performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis
Forecast
Predictions made on the basis of time-series information
Time-series information
Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency
Market basket analysis
analyzes such items as Web sites and checkout scanner information to detect customers' buying behavior and predict future behavior by identifying affinities among customers' choices of products and services