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history 255 chapt 7 and 8
Terms in this set (208)
Second Continental Congress 174
. Thomas Paine, Abigail Adams, and the Case for Independence
1. Common Sense—Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in January 1776; made the case for independence in simple yet forceful language; elaborated on the absurdities of monarchy and called for republican government; sold more than 150,000 copies in a matter of weeks; reprinted in newspapers and read aloud across the colonies.
2. "Remember the Ladies"—Abigail Adams wanted independence but called for a revolution in women's rights; wrote a series of letters to her husband John Adams; asked him to "remember the ladies" when constructing a new government; the new government did not change women's rights.
Second Continental Congress 174
Legislative body that govern the United States from May 1775 through the wars duration. It established and or me, created it's own money, and declared independence wants all hope for a peaceful Reconciliation with Britain was gone.
Continental Army 175
The army created in June 1775 by the second Continental Congress to oppose the British. Virginian George Washington, commander-in-chief, had the task of turning local militias an untrained volunteers into a disciplined or me
Battle of Bunker Hill 176
Second battle of the war, on June 16, 1775, involving a massive British attack on new England militia units on a hill facing Boston. The militia men finally yielded the hill, but not before inflicting heavy Casualties on the British.
—Pamphlet published by Thomas Paine in January 1776; made the case for independence in simple yet forceful language; elaborated on the absurdities of monarchy and called for republican government; sold more than 150,000 copies in a matter of weeks; reprinted in newspapers and read aloud across the colonies
Remember the Ladies
Abigail Adams wanted independence but called for a revolution in women's rights; wrote a series of letters to her husband John Adams; asked him to "remember the ladies" when constructing a new government; the new government did not change women's rights.
Declaration of Independence
1. Moving toward Independence—Common Sense, the prospect of an alliance with France, and the news that the British were negotiating to hire German mercenary soldiers solidified support for independence; all but four states agitated for a declaration by May 1776; the four opposing states had large loyalist populations; but by July 2, New York was the only holdout.
2. The List of Grievances—Thomas Jefferson drafted the document; after a preamble focused on natural rights and equality, he listed two dozen grievances against King George; the congress argued over the list for two days; Jefferson had blamed the king for slavery, and delegates from Georgia and South Carolina struck out the passage; colonies let stand the passage, blaming the king for mobilizing Indians into frontier warfare.
3. Adopting the Declaration of Independence—The congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776; New York endorsed it on July 15, making the vote for independence unanimous; printed copies did not include signed names because it was technically an act of treason.
Moving toward Independence—Common Sense, the prospect of an alliance with France, and the news that the British were negotiating to hire German mercenary soldiers solidified support for independence; all but four states agitated for a declaration by May 1776; the four opposing states had large loyalist populations; but by July 2, New York was the only holdout.
The List of Grievances—Thomas Jefferson drafted the document; after a preamble focused on natural rights and equality, he listed two dozen grievances against King George; the congress argued over the list for two days; Jefferson had blamed the king for slavery, and delegates from Georgia and South Carolina struck out the passage; colonies let stand the passage, blaming the king for mobilizing Indians into frontier warfare
Adopting the Declaration of Independence
—The congress formally adopted the Declaration of Independence on July 4, 1776; New York endorsed it on July 15, making the vote for independence unanimous; printed copies did not include signed names because it was technically an act of treason.
. —The war became a rebellion, an overthrow of long-established authority; local defense had long rested in militias, which were best suited for limited engagements; they were more social events than serious military units; Congress first set enlistments in the new Continental army at one year; offered $20 incentive for three years of enlistment and a hundred acres of land for those who committed to the duration of the war; the army was raw, inexperienced, and undermanned, but it was never as bad as the British continually assumed
Women and African Americans
—Women served non-combat roles by cooking, washing, and nursing the wounded; George Washington at first excluded blacks from the Continental army, but as manpower needs increased, the congress permitted free blacks to enlist and paid southerners $400 for each slave they allowed to enlist; about 5,000 black men served on the rebel side, nearly all from northern states.
—Americans had to repulse and defeat an invading army; the British wanted to put down a rebellion and restore monarchical power, but it was unclear how they would accomplish this; decisive defeat of the Continental army was essential, but the British would still have to contend with an armed insurgent population; in addition, there was no single political nerve cell to capture or attack; the British had to restore old government without destroying an enemy country; needed a large land army and counted on the help of Americans who remained loyal.
Divide and Conquer
—Overall strategy was divide and conquer; started with New York since the British believed it contained the most loyal subjects; control of the Hudson River would also isolate New England.
In late 1775, the Americans launched an expedition to conquer the cities of Montreal and Quebec before British reinforcements could arrive; General Montgomery took Montreal in September of 1775; Montgomery and General Benedict Arnold failed to take Quebec, and smallpox ravaged their ranks.
Battle of Long Island
—The main action of the first year came in New York; after the British won the battle of Long Island in late August, Washington evacuated his troops to Manhattan Island; knowing it would be hard to hold Manhattan, he moved north to two forts along the Hudson River; two armies engaged in limited skirmishing for two months before British General Howe finally captured Fort Washington and Fort Lee; Washington retreated through New Jersey and into Pennsylvania; Howe again decided not to pursue.
On December 25, Washington crossed the Delaware River and made a quick capture of German soldiers at Trenton; victory lifted the morale of the troops.
The Importance of Committees—Committees of correspondence, of public safety, and of inspection dominated colonial politics; took on local governance and enforced boycotts, picked army draftees, and policed suspected traitors; sometimes invaded homes to look for contraband goods; loyalists were dismayed by the increasing show of power by the patriots
Women's Patriotism and the Ladies Association
—White women increasingly demonstrated patriotism; while husbands were away, wives took on masculine duties like tending farms and making business decisions; women from prominent Philadelphia families formed the Ladies Association in 1780 to collect money for Continental soldiers; a published broadside, "The Sentiments of an American Woman" defended female patriotism
Why Remain Loyal—About one-fifth of Americans remained loyal to the crown in 1776, and probably another two-thirds tried to remain neutral; elite loyalists often had cultural and economic ties to England and believed stability depended on a government anchored by monarchy and aristocracy; they feared domestic tyranny; there were many non-elite people who remained loyal due to local reasons for opposing the revolutionary leaders in their region.
. Who Remained Loyal—Most visible loyalists were royal officials; wealthy merchants also preferred the trade protections of the navigation acts and British navy; loyalist urban lawyers admired British law and order; backcountry farmers who remained loyal did so because they resented the power of the lowlands gentry; southern slaves looked to Britain in hope of freedom
The Decision of the Indians—Many Indian tribes hoped to remain neutral; most were drawn in, with many taking the British side; the powerful Iroquois Confederacy divided.
The Second Continental Congress defined all loyalists as traitors; state laws defined provisioning the British army, saying or printing anything that undermined morale, or discouraging men from enlisting in the army, as treason
Wives of Loyalists—
When loyalists fled the country, property was confiscated; if a wife remained, courts usually allowed her to keep one-third of the property; supported a wife's autonomy to choose political sides, if she stayed in the United States; courts later ruled that women had no independent will to choose to be loyalists.
Tarring and feathering; property confiscation; deportation; terrorism; all proved to loyalists that democratic tyranny was more to be feared than monarchical tyranny.
The Loyalist Exodus—Throughout the war, probably 7,000 to 8,000 loyalists fled to England, and 28,000 fled to Canada.
British Treatment of American Captives
—British leaders saw the Americans as traitors and therefore treated them worse than common criminals; crowded their first 4,000 prisoners on two dozen vessels anchored between Manhattan and Brooklyn; overcrowded, dark, stinking spaces; more than half a dozen men died daily; food and sanitation were inadequate; Continental Congress sent funds to supply rations to the prisoners, but most supplies were diverted to British use; in early 1777, Parliament suspended habeas corpus for colonists accused of treason; more than 15,000 men endured captivity in the prison ships, and two-thirds of them died.
American Treatment of British Captives
American Treatment of British Captives—Washington insisted British captives be treated humanely; they were gathered in rural encampments where they were allowed to plant gardens, move freely during the day, and even hire themselves out as workers.
Continental Congress printed money, but its value deteriorated because the congress held no reserves of gold or silver to back up the currency
Congress had to borrow money from wealthy men in exchange for certificates of debt promising repayment with interest; also paid soldiers with land grant certificates, which also depreciated.
—Depreciating currency led to rising prices; poor economy and unreliable currency was demoralizing to Americans; some turned the situation to their advantage, and a black market in prohibited luxury imports thrived
Hudson River Valley
The Hudson River Valley—In 1777, Burgoyne assumed command of an army of 7,800 soldiers in Canada and began the northern squeeze on the Hudson River valley; also had 1,000 "camp followers," 400 Indian warriors, and 400 horses; captured Fort Ticonderoga with ease in July; Burgoyne's army slowly moved South; rather than meet Burgoyne to isolate New England, however, General Howe sailed south to attack Philadelphia.
Fort Stanwix—Burgoyne instead awaited reinforcements from the west; at Ft. Stanwix, the reinforcements encountered Americans who refused to surrender; the British laid siege to the fort with the help of Palatine German militiamen and Oneida Indians; Mohawk chief Joseph Brant led an ambush on the Germans and Oneidas in a narrow revere called Oriskany, killing nearly 500 out of 840 of them; these were multiethnic battles with a high mortality rate; the British retreated at Fort Stanwix, depriving Burgoyne of reinforcements.
Burgoyne camped at the small village of Saratoga; General Horatio Gates began moving his army toward Saratoga; the British won the first battle of Saratoga, but the Americans won the second; forced Burgoyne to surrender to American forces on October 17, 1777.
The British proposed a negotiated settlement, not including independence, to end the war; Americans refused; morale ran high, but supplies of arms and food ran low; the American army suffered a devastating loss at Valley Forge due to disease and desertion; Washington blamed the citizenry for lack of support; evidence of corruption and profiteering was abundant; army suppliers too often provided defective food, clothing, and gunpowder.
War in the Interior—
While the war paused on the Atlantic Coast after Burgoyne's defeat and Washington's stay at Valley Forge, it continued in the interior; Native Americans struggled against the Americans for their own independence, freedom, and land.
. The Mohawk Valley—Slaughter at Oriskany marked the beginning of three years of terror for inhabitants of the Mohawk Valley; Loyalists and Indians raided farms throughout 1778; captured or killed residents; Americans responded by destroying Joseph Brant's home village; in the summer of 1779, Washington authorized a campaign to wreak "total destruction and devastation" on Iroquois villages of central New York; forty Indian towns were obliterated.
End of Neutrality
The End of Neutrality—By 1780, very few Indians remained neutral; most sided with the British or went to Spanish territory; the rare instance of Indian support for the American cause was a strategic decision; these Indians believed Americans were unstoppable, and it was better to work out an alliance than lose in a war; Americans treated friendly Indians poorly, showing there was no winning strategy for them.
War west of North Carolina—
War west of North Carolina—West of North Carolina (today's Tennessee), militias attacked Cherokee settlements in 1779; Indians from north of the Ohio River, in alliance with the British, repeatedly attacked white settlements such as Boonesborough in present-day Kentucky.
France Enters the War
—American victory at Saratoga convinced France to enter the war; formal alliance signed in February 1778; French had been covertly providing weapons and military advisers to the Americans well before 1778.
—Primarily aligned with the Americans in hopes of defeating archrival Britain; even an American defeat would not be a disaster for France if the war drained Britain of money and resources.
Southern Strategy—British forces abandoned New England and focused on the South; they believed the South's large slave population would desert to the British and disrupt the southern society and economy; also believed Georgia and South Carolina were loyalist strongholds
Easy Victory in Georgia—Fell easily at the end of December 1778; the bulk of the Continental army was still in New York and New Jersey
. —Ten Continental army regiments in Charleston; British laid siege for five weeks; took Charleston in May 1870; General Charles Cornwallis established military rule of South Carolina by mid-summer.
Battle of Camden
. —American troops arrived to strike back at Cornwallis by August 1780; met the British at the battle of Camden; most devastating defeat of the war for the Americans.
—British success resulted in part because of improved information about American troop movements furnished by Benedict Arnold, hero of several American battles; believed he did not get proper honor or financial award; traded information for money beginning in 1779; planned to sell a West Point victory to the British; Americans captured the man carrying plans from Arnold to Clinton; vilifying Arnold allowed Americans to stake out a wide distance between themselves and dastardly conduct; inspired a renewal of patriotism
The Situation in the Backcountry—Revitalized rebels waged guerilla warfare in western South Carolina, an area Cornwallis thought was pacified and loyal; South Carolina backcountry became the site of guerilla warfare; British southern strategy depended on loyalist strength to hold reconquered territory; assumption was proven false.
Minor Victories for the British—British took Williamsburg in June 1781; captured members of the Virginia assembly in Charlottesville soon afterward; minor victories allowed Cornwallis to imagine he was succeeding in Virginia; moved toward Yorktown near the Chesapeake Bay to wait for backup.
—The French fleet beat British backup to the Chesapeake Bay; a five-day naval battle left the French navy in clear control of the coast; proved a decisive factor in ending the war because French ships prevented any rescue of Cornwallis's army
Surrender—Cornwallis and his 7,500 troops faced a combined French and American army of 16,000; French and Americans bombarded British fortifications at Yorktown for twelve days; Cornwallis surrendered on October 19, 1781.
Fighting on the Frontier
. Continued Fighting on the Frontier—Two more years of skirmishes ensued after the British surrender; Americans fought Indian tribes in frontier areas of Kentucky, Ohio, and Illinois; British army remained in control of Savannah, Charleston, and New York; Continental army had to stay in the field.
Treaty of Paris—
Two years in the making; acknowledged American independence; set western border of the new country at the Mississippi River; guaranteed creditors on both sides could collect debts owed in sterling money; prohibited the British from evacuating slaves; signed September 3, 1783.
Fate of African Americans—Thousands of self-liberated blacks who had joined the British under the promise of freedom did not celebrate; more than 4,000 blacks sailed out of New York to Nova Scotia; some blacks headed to the Indian country; the British never wanted to emancipate the slaves; they only wanted to destabilize patriot planters and gain manpower.
The Treaty of Paris had nothing to say about Indian participants; like the treaty ending the Seven Years' War, the 1783 treaty failed to recognize Indians as players in the conflict; Indian lands were assigned to victors as though they were uninhabited; Indians did not concede defeat; some fought the Americans into the nineteenth century
Forming a Government
—The Continental Congress wanted to draft a document that would specify what powers the congress had and by what authority it existed; delegates agreed a government should pursue war and peace, conduct foreign relations, regulate trade, and run a postal service; the congress reached agreement on the Articles of Confederation in November 1777; defined the union as a loose confederation of states with no national executive and no judiciary; congressional offices had a three-year term limit; routine decisions in the congress required a simple majority of seven states; declaring war required nine; approving or amending the articles required unanimous consent of thirteen state delegations and thirteen state legislatures; unanimity stalled the acceptance of the Articles until 1781.
Taxation and Requisition
—Congress had to be sensitive to the language of the Revolution, which denounced taxation by a distant and nonrepresentative power; the congress would requisition (request) money to be paid into the common treasury; each state legislature would levy taxes within its borders to pay requisition; no mechanism compelled states to pay.
Western Land Claims—
The Articles had no plan for the lands to the west of the thirteen original states; many states claimed those lands; five states had no claims, and they wanted congress to hold the land in a national domain and eventually sell the land to form new states.
Compromise and Conflict
—States with claims finally compromised; any land a state volunteered to relinquish would become the national domain; Madison and Jefferson ceded Virginia's huge land claim in 1781; Articles finally approved; conflict demonstrated the differences between the states.
. The Problems of the New Government—State legislatures were slow to select delegates; many politicians preferred to devote their energies to state governments, believing the real power was at the state level; often, too few representatives showed up to conduct business; the congress had no permanent home
Attempts to Fix the Problems—Congress created executive departments of war, finance, and foreign affairs; the departments handled purely administrative functions, but their formation demonstrated that the congress was inventing a modest executive branch by necessity.
By 1778, all states had drawn up constitutions; having been denied the unwritten rights of Englishmen, Americans wanted written contracts that guaranteed basic principles; all state constitutions stipulated that government ultimately rested on the consent of the governed; political writers embraced the concept of republicanism as the underpinning of the new governments; republicanism meant different things to different people, but all proponents believed that a republican government was one that promoted the people's welfare.
Serve the People
. How to Best Serve the People—Leaders agreed that republics could succeed only in small units so people could make sure their interests were being served; most states limited the term length and powers of the governor; real power resided with the lower houses, which were more responsive to popular majorities, with annual elections and guaranteed rotation in office.
Bills of Rights—
. Bills of Rights—Six state constitutions included bills of rights, which were lists of basic individual liberties that government could not abridge; Virginia passed the first bill of rights in June 1776; guaranteed freedom of speech, freedom of the press, and trial by jury.
Limits to participation were widely agreed upon in the 1770s; in nearly every state, candidates for the highest offices had to meet substantial property qualifications; only property owners were presumed to possess the necessary independence of mind to make wise political choices; qualifications probably disfranchised from one-quarter to one-half of all adult white males in the United States; made voting class specific.
. Gender—Few stopped to question excluding women from voting; only three states specified that voters had to be male, as the assumption was unspoken
State constitution enfranchised all free inhabitants worth more than £50; opened the door for unmarried women and free blacks; a 1790 law used the language he or she, making woman suffrage explicit; small numbers of free blacks and women made their influence small, but a new state law explicitly disfranchised blacks and women in 1807.
Did Bills of Rights Apply to Slaves?—No; referred to white Americans; Virginia legislators explicitly excluded slaves from civil society.
Challenging Slavery—The Revolutionary ideals about natural equality and liberty encouraged a legal assault on slavery; slaves in the North filed petitions to obtain their freedom, but they were not successful; slaves in Massachusetts found success suing for freedom in the courts; slavery in Massachusetts was effectively abolished by judicial decisions by 1789.
—Pennsylvania passed its first gradual emancipation law in 1780; freed children of slave mothers once they reached age 28; many slaves simply ran away from their owners and claimed freedom; other northern states followed with gradual emancipation laws.
Resistance to Emancipation—
Delaware, Maryland, and Virginia rejected emancipation bills; slavery was central to the economy; the states did ease restrictions on individual acts of emancipation; by 1790, close to 10,000 newly freed Virginia slaves had formed local free black communities with schools and churches; in the deep South of the Carolinas and Georgia, freeing the slaves was unthinkable for whites.
—Every state from Pennsylvania north acknowledged that slavery was fundamentally inconsistent with Revolutionary ideology; also led to a geographic divide that associated the North with freedom and the South with slavery.
Soldiers' Back Pay
—For nearly two years, the Continental army camped at Newburgh, New York, awaiting the finalized peace treaty; they were angry at the prospect of not receiving their pensions due to the unstable economy; in December 1782, officers petitioned the congress for immediate back pay for their men; the congress hoped they could use this sympathetic story to make a case to the states for taxation.
A five percent impost—Philadelphia merchant Robert Morris was the superintendent of finance; led an effort to collect a 5 percent impost (import tax), but it failed by one vote each time; showed how unworkable the amendment provision of the Articles was.
A Threatened Coup—The Newburgh Conspiracy marked the country's first and only instance of a threatened military coup; no actual coup was envisioned; Morris and other congressmen offered encouragement to officers to act as if the army would march on the congress to demand its back pay.
Washington's Response—Washington signed the initial petition but did not know that the leaders of the planned march were in collusion with congressional leaders; in March 1783, he learned of these developments and delivered an emotional speech to five hundred officers; asserted that civilian government takes precedence over the military; defused crisis.
1. —Indians had been excluded from the Treaty of Paris; confederation government wanted to end hostilities and secure land cessions, particularly from the Iroquois; the government wanted to take advantage of the revenue that land sales would generate.
Two Meetings at Fort Stanwix—The congress summoned Iroquois to a meeting in October 1784 at Fort Stanwix; the governor of New York argued that New York Indians should only negotiate with the state of New York and called his own meeting at Fort Stanwix in September; Iroquois knew the September meeting would be superseded by the congress; sent deputies without negotiating power.
In October, Americans demanded a return of prisoners of war, recognition of the confederation's power to negotiate (rather than that of the individual states), and a cession of Indian land from Fort Niagara due south; land would establish the U.S. border with Canada and encircle Iroquois land within the United States; argued the Indians were a subdued people
Indians balked but ultimately signed the treaty; tribes not at the meeting tried to disavow the treaty as a document signed under coercion by virtual hostages; the confederation government ignored them and made plans to survey and develop the Ohio territory; New York leaders astutely understood that the confederation government lacked the resources to implement the treaty terms; quietly began surveying and selling the very land they had failed to secure from the Indians in September; exposed another weakness in the confederation government.
Jefferson's Plan—Thomas Jefferson drafted a policy for expanding westward; he proposed dividing the territory north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi (called the Northwest Territory) into nine new states with evenly spaced east-west boundaries and townships ten miles square; first encouraged giving land to settlers rather than selling it to build a nation of freeholders and discourage speculation; the draft guaranteed self-government and prohibited slavery in the territory.
Land Ordinance of 1784—
Incorporated parts of Jefferson's plan; found too radical the proposal to give away the land; slavery prohibition failed as well.
Land Ordinance of 1785
—Revisions of the 1784 plan; called for dividing the land into three to five states; land would be sold by public auction for a minimum price of one dollar an acre; minimum purchase was 640 acres, and payment had to be made in hard money or certificates of debt; gave the advantage to speculators, who held the land for sale rather than living on it; thus avoided conflict with Indians who called the land their own.
Land Ordinance of 1787 (the Northwest Ordinance)—
Set forth the process by which settled territories would advance to statehood; population would eventually write a constitution and apply for full admission to the Union; perhaps the most important legislation passed by confederation government; ensured United States would not become a colonial power with respect to its white citizens.
Indians—Indians were acknowledged, but their land claims were not protected or honored.
Slavery and the Roots of North-South Sectionalism—
Slavery and the Roots of North-South Sectionalism—The ordinance prohibited slavery but came with a fugitive slave law; acknowledged and supported slavery even as it barred it from one region.
Jefferson's plan for the Northwest Territory
Jefferson's plan is orderly, mathematical. He uses straight lines and right angles almost exclusively. States are roughly the same size measured north to south. The plan would add a total of fourteen states, more than doubling the size of the union
Jefferson's plan- problems
Few of Jefferson's states took natural boundaries into account, except for those bordered by the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers. The plan also failed to consider the claims of Indians on those lands to the West. It failed to anticipate the existing states' ambitions for new land
Money from the States
Requesting Money from the States—In 1785, the confederation government requested $3 million from the states, four times larger than the previous year's requisition; needed the money for operating the government, paying debts owed to foreign leaders, and paying Americans who owned government bonds; at the same time, states were struggling under state tax levies.
Tension in Massachusetts—Massachusetts saw most extreme tensions; fiscally conservative legislature had passed tough tax laws four years in a row; in March 1786, the legislature in Boston loaded the federal requisition onto the bill.
Western Massachusetts—Farmers in
Protests in Western Massachusetts—Farmers in the western two-thirds of the state petitioned Boston for relief and held conventions calling for democratic revisions to the state constitution; also wanted the capital moved farther west in the state; still unheard, the dissidents in six counties targeted the county courts; forced them to close their doors until the state constitution was revised
Response from State and Federal Governments—Governor James Bowdoin had organized protests against British taxes; now characterized western dissidents as rebels; vilified the chief leader Daniel Shays; Continental Congress feared armed revolt and called for enlistments to triple the size of the army; fewer than 100 men responded; Bowdoin also raised private army of 3,000 men, whose pay was provided by wealthy and fearful Boston merchants.
Shays's Rebellion and Its Aftermath—Insurgents learned of the private army marching west in January 1787; moved to capture a federal armory to obtain weapons; met with gunfire from a militia; four rebels killed and another 20 wounded; in the end, two rebels were executed for rebellion; 4,000 men gained leniency for confessing misconduct; Shays himself escaped to Vermont; the rebellion was significant, in that it caused colonial leaders to worry about the confederation's ability to handle civil disorder.
James Madison - revision meetings
Revision Meetings—James Madison and Virginians convinced the congress to allow a meeting of delegates in Annapolis in September 1786 to revise the trade regulation powers of the articles; only five states participated; rescheduled the meeting for May 1787 in Philadelphia; the congress reluctantly endorsed the meeting and limited its scope to revising the Articles; Alexander Hamilton of New York attended with hopes for a stronger government
The Constitutional Convention—The fifty-five men who met in Philadelphia had already concluded weaknesses in the Articles; all white men; generally wealthy; two-thirds were lawyers and the majority had served in the Confederation Congress and knew its strengths and weaknesses
. Virginia Plan—The Philadelphia convention worked in secrecy so that the men could freely explore alternatives without fear their honest opinions would come back to haunt them; major issue was representation; Virginia Plan repudiated the principle of a confederation of states; called for a two-chamber legislature, a powerful executive, and a judiciary; practically silenced the smaller states by linking representation to population; argued government operated directly on the people, not on the states.
New Jersey Plan—
In mid-June, delegates from small states unveiled the New Jersey Plan; maintained the single-house congress of the Articles, but gave it sweeping powers; also called for a plural presidency.
The Great Compromise—Solved the deadlock between large and small states in mid-July; produced the basic structural features of the emerging U.S. Constitution; bicameral legislature, with representation in the lower house, the House of Representatives, tied to population and representation in the upper house, the Senate, coming from all states equally.
. The Three-Fifths Clause—Determined how slaves were counted as people and property; all free persons plus "three-fifths of all other Persons" would constitute the numerical apportionment of representatives; using the phrase "all other Persons" as a substitute for "slaves" indicates the discomfort delegates felt in acknowledging in the Constitution the existence of slavery; the words slave and slavery never appear, but the Constitution recognized and guaranteed slavery with the fugitive slave clause and a provision closing the international, but not the domestic, slave trade.
Delegates saw pure democracy as a dangerous thing; favored republican institutions, but created a government that gave a direct voice to the people only in the House; gave a check on that voice by the Senate, a body of men elected not by popular vote but by state legislatures; presidency also out of reach of direct democracy due to the electoral college.
Checks and Balances and Enumeration of Powers—
Government had limits and checks on all three of its branches; convention listed the powers of the president and of Congress; only three dissenters refused to sign the document; only nine states, not thirteen, would need to ratify the document; votes would come from special ratifying conventions, not state legislatures.
To silence critics, supporters sent the document to the congress; pro-Constitution forces called themselves Federalists; opponents thus were called Antifederalists, which made them appear defensive and negative.
The Federalists targeted states most likely to ratify quickly; by early 1788, they had achieved ratification in Delaware, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Georgia, Connecticut, Maryland, and South Carolina; after a tough battle, they secured ratification in Massachusetts by May 1788; they therefore only needed one more vote, but they also felt they had to win over the largest and most economically critical states: Virginia and New York.
Who Were the Antifederalists?—The Antifederalists were a group united mainly in their desire to block the Constitution; they drew strength from the long-nurtured fear that distant power might infringe on people's liberties.
Elected Officials and Individual Rights—Antifederalists feared that representatives would always be elites and therefore not sensitive to the problems of the lower classes; Federalists agreed that elites would be favored in national elections, but they viewed it as a good thing; Federalists wanted power to reside with intelligent, virtuous leaders like themselves; Antifederalists' most widespread objection was the Constitution's omission of any guarantee of individual liberties like those found in state constitutions' bills of rights.
Amendments in Virginia
New Amendments in Virginia—New Hampshire cast the decisive vote on June 21, 1788, but New York and Virginia were too large and important to ignore; an influential Antifederalist group led by Patrick Henry and George Mason tried to block the Constitution; Federalists finally secured ratification by proposing twenty specific amendments that the new government would promise to consider.
New York and The Federalist Papers
New York and The Federalist Papers—New York voters believed such a large state should not relinquish so much power to the new federal government; also home to persuasive Federalists; Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote and published eighty-five essays on the political philosophy of the new constitution; the essays were later republished as The Federalist Papers; Madison argued in Federalist 10 that a large republic would increase democracy by preventing a single faction from coming to power; impassioned debate plus the news of Virginia's ratification tipped the balance to the federalists.
Ratification—Took another year and a half for Antifederalists in North Carolina to come around; Rhode Island held out until May 1790, and even then it ratified by only a two-vote margin.
A pamphlet written by Thomas Paine in 1776 that laid out the case for independence. In it, pain rejected monarchy, advocating it's replacement with republican government based on the consent of the people. The pamphlet influence public opinion throughout the colonies.
Declaration of independence 179
A document containing philosophical principles and a list of grievances that declared separation from Britain. The second Continental Congress adopted the declaration on July 4, 1776, ending a period of intense debate with moderates still hoping to reconcile with Britain.
Battle of quebec
Battle of Long Island - Washington captures German troops along the Delaware River
Battle of Long Island 182
First major engagement of the new Continental Army, defending against 45,000 British troops newly arrived on the western long island which is today Brooklyn. The continentals retreated with high casualties and Many taken prisoner
War in the north 1775 -1776
After battles in Massachusetts in 1775, rebel forces invaded Canada but failed to capture Quebec. The British army landed in New York in 1776, causing turmoil in New Jersey in 1777 and 1778. Burrer going attempted to isolate new England, but he was stopped in Saratoga in 1777 in the decisive battle of the early war
Loyalist traders 185
In June 1775 the second Continental Congress declares all loyalist traders. Mohawk leader Joseph Brant travels to England to pledge support for the British side
Declaration of independence 185
In 1776 in New York City, Loyless sign a declaration of dependence
Habeas corpus 185
1777 British Parliament suspend habeas corpus
1778 colonial committees of Public Safety fix prices on a sensual commodities
Colonial committees 185
Colonial committees of Public Safety fix prices on E sensual commodities
Philadelphia ladies 185
Philadelphia ladies association raises money for soldiers 1780.
Ladies association 186
A women's organization in Philadelphia that collected substantial money donations in 1780 to give to the continental troops as a token of the citizens appreciation. A woman leader authorized a declaration. The sentiment of an American woman to justify women's unexpected entry into political lifePhiladelphia
Colonist who remained loyal to Britain during the revolutionary war, probably numbering around 1/ 5 of the population in 1776. Colonist remain loyal to Britain for many reasons and Loyless could be found in every region of the country
Battle of Oriskany 191
A punishing defeat for Americans in a ravine named or a skinny near Fort Stanwix in New York in August 1777. Mohawk and Seneca Indians ambush German American militia men aided by eight by allied Onita warriors, and 500 on the revolutionary side were killed
Battle of Saratoga 191
A two-stage battle in New York ending with the decisive the feet and surrender of British General John we're going on August 17, 1777. The victory convinced France to through it's official support to the American side in the war
British take savanna Georgia
Seize of Charleston,South Carolina, French army arrives in Newport, Rhode Island. British win battle of Camden, Benedict Arnold is exposed as a traitor, Americans wind battle of Kings Mountain
Battle of Yorktown 199
October 1781 battle that sealed American victory in revolutionary war. American troops in a French fleet trapped the British army under the command of General Charles Cornwallis at Yorktown, Virginia
Treaty of Paris 17 83-1 99
September 3, 1783, treaty that ended the Revolutionary war. The treaty acknowledged America's independence, set it's boundaries and promised the quick withdrawal of British troops from American soil, it failed to recognize Indians as players in the conflict
Articles of confederation 206
The written document defining the structure of the government from 1781 to 1788. Under the articles, the union was a confederation of equal states with no executive president)and with limited powers, existing mainly to foster a common defense.
Articles of confederation ate sent to states
Articles of confederation are ratified. Creation of executive departments.
A social philosophy that embraced representative institutions "as opposed to monarchy" a citizenry attuned civic values above private interest, and a virtuous community in which individuals work to promote the public good
Declaration of independence is adopted - Virginia adopts state bill of rights
State constitutions are completed
Virginia Institute's gradual emancipation
Several Massachusetts slaves sue for freedom
Massachusetts enfranchises taxpaying free blacks
Gradual emancipation laws are passed in Rhode Island and Connecticut
Gradual emancipation law is past in New York
Gradual emancipation law is passed in New Jersey
Gradual emancipation 213
Laws passed in five northern states that balanced slaves civil rights against slaveholders property rights by providing a multistage process for freeing slaves, distinguishing persons already alive from those not yet born and providing bench mark dates when freedom would arrive for each group
Newburgh conspiracy 216
A bogus threatened coup staged by Continental Army officers and leaders in the Continental Congress in 17 82-17 83. They hoped that a forceful demand for military backpay and pensions would create pressure for stronger taxation powers. General Washington diffused the threat
Treaty of Fort Stanwix 217
1784 treaty with the Iroquois confederacy that established the primacy of the American confederation( and not states) to negotiate with Indians and that resulted in a large land cessions in the Ohio Country, northwest Pennsylvania. Tribes not present at Fort Stanwix disavowed the treaty
Northwest ordinance 219
Land act of 1787 that established a three stage process by which settled territories would become states. It also banned slavery in the north west territory. The ordinance guaranteed that Western lands with white populations would not become colonial dependencies
Shays rebellion 222
Uprising in 1786 to 1787 led by farmers centered in western Massachusetts. Dissidents protested taxation policies of the eastern elites who controlled the states government. Shay's rebellion caused leaders throughout the country to worry about the confederation ability to handle civil disorder
Virginia plan 224
Plan drafted by James Madison and presented at the opening of the Philadelphia constitutional convention. Proposing a powerful three branch government, with representation in both houses of the Congress tied to population, this planet eclipse the Voice of small states in the national government
New Jersey plan 224
Alternative plan drafted by delegates from small states retaining the confederations single house Congress with one vote per state. But like the Virginia plan, it proposed enhanced Congressional powers including the right to tax, regulate trade, and use force on unruly state governments
3/5 clause 225
A clause in the Constitution stipulating that all free persons +3/5 of all other persons would constitute the numerical base for apportioning both representation and taxation. The clause tactically acknowledge the existence of slavery in the United States
Originally the term for the supporters of the ratification of the U.S. Constitution in 1787-17 88. In the 1790s it became the name for one of the two dominant political groups that emerged during that decade. Federalist leaders of the 1790s supported Britain in foreign-policy and commercial interest at home. Prominent federalist included George Washington, Alexander Hamilton and John Adams
Pro constitution essays called the Federalist papers begin to be published
US constitution is ratified
Opponents of the ratification of the Constitution. Anti-Federalist feared that a powerful and distant central government would be out of touch with the needs of the citizens. They also complained that the constitution failed to guarantee individual liberties in a bill of rights
Second Continental Congress 174
Assembled in Philadelphia to raise and supply an army and to explore reconciliation with Britain
John and Samual Adams 174
John Dickinson of Pennsylvania 174
Was a moderate, seeking reconciliation with Britain
Benjamin Franklin 175
Was feared by some to be a British spy
Continental Army 175
Send a clear message that there was widespread commitment to war beyond new England
Declaration on the cause and necessity of taking up arms 175
Rehearsed for milia arguments about the tyranny of Parliament and the need to defend English liberties it was drafted by young Virginia planter Thomas Jefferson... Better to die freeman then to live slaves
William Howe 176
Insisted on a bold frontal assault sending 2500 soldiers across the water up bunker hill in an intimidating but potentially costly attack
130,000 people on the American continent most of them Indians died of smallpox during the American Revolution
Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New York, 176
Delegates from the states who's merchants depended on trade with Britain urged negotiations with Britain
Olive branch petition 176
Affirmed loyalty to the monarchy and blaming all the troubles on the kings ministers and on Parliament. written by John Dickinson it propose that the American colonial assemblies be recognized as individual parliaments under the umbrella of the monarchy
Thomas Paine 176
Wrote a pamphlet called common sense to justify independence. He advocated republican government based on the consent of the people
Pennsylvania, Maryland, New York and South Carolina 178
The colonies that were holding out against the declaration of independence in 1776
Richard Montgomeryp 182
Headed to force of New York continentals and took Montreal in September 1775 and then advanced on Quebec
Benedict Arnold 182
Move north to Maine to Quebec they encountered smallpox which killed more men than had the battle for Quebec
German mercenaries who for in the war
White women 186
Increasingly demonstrated a capacity for patriotism as wartime hardships dramatically altered their work routines. Had to do the decisions and the manual labor and political meetings that the men had normally done
About 1/5 of the American population remained loyal to the crown in 1776. They were made up of royal officials governors, local judges, customs officers, wealthy merchants, urban lawyers, backcountry Carolina farm is, southern slaves, Indian tribes
Joseph Brant 186
A young Mohawk leader who traveled to England in 1775 to complain to King George about land hungry New York Settlers. He pledged Indian support for King George in exchange for protection from encroaching settlers
All loyalist were considered traitors.
Anna Martin 188
recovered her Dowery property on the grounds that she had no independent will to be a loyalist
Mather Biles 188
Boston loyalist who was sentenced to deportation
Prisoners of war 188
British treated them worse than common criminals
Anglo American right of habeas corpus 188
8/13 century British liberty that guaranteed every prisoner the right to challenge his detention before a judge and to learn the charges against him
John Burgoyne 190
A British general commanding a considerable army began the northern squeeze on the Hudson river valley he marched South hoping to capture Albany near the intersection of the Hudson and Mohawk rivers
Valley forge 191
Winter quarters for General George Washington
Cherry valley 192
Joseph Bryant's Warriors attack this town killing 16 soldiers and 32 civilians
John Sullivan 192
Commanded 4500 troops in a campaign of terror in the fall of 1779. 40 Indiantown smith with a total obliteration
White eyes 192
A Delaware Indian chief who sought peace with the Americans pledging Indian support in exchange for supplies and trade goods
Cornstalk and red Hawk 192
American soldiers killed these two friendly Shawnee chief's
George Rogers Clark 192
A young Virginian who led Kentucky militia men into what is now Illinois, attacking and taking the British forts at cast Kaskia
For Detroit and Niagara 192
Violent raids by Americans drove Indians into the arms of the British at these ports
In February 1778 France recognize the United States as an independent nation and promise full military and commercial support
British west Indies 194
France wanted to acquire the British west Indies
Georgia and South Carolina 195
A large number of Loyalists proving a base for the British to recapture the southern colonies one by one
Charles Cornwallis 196
Is that Bush military rule of South Carolina he purged rebels from government office and dissarmed rebel militias
General gates 197
Lead 3000 troops into battle against Cornwallis at Camden, South Carolina.
Benedict Arnold 197
Provided information to the British about the movements of American troops
Kings Mountain 198
A massacre of loyalists units by 1400 front tier rifleman at the battle of kings Mountain in Weston South Carolina
Article 8 207
Of the confederation document declared that taxes were needed to support the common defense or general welfare of the country yet the Congress also had to be sensitive to the rhetoric of the revolution which denounce taxation via nonrepresentative power
Articles of confederation 207
Two-step solution; congress word requisition money to be paid in to the common treasury and each state legislature with Dan Levi taxes within its borders to pay the requisition
Concerns 1783-2 15
Paying down the Large war debt making formal peace with the Indians, and dealing with Western settlement.
Ohio Valley 218
Congress looked here to make good on the promise of Western expansion- The Northwest territory
Northwest territory 218
Would be divided into nine states with evenly space east and west boundaries and townships 10 mile Square
Ordinance of 1780 218
Congress adopted parts of Jeffersons plan, the rectangular grid, the nine states, and the guarantee of self government and eventual statehood in the northwest territory
Ordinance of 1785 219
Called for 3 to 5 states divided into Township 6 mile Square for the divided into 36 sections of 640 acres each section enough for four r
family forms - in the northwestAll paper goods
Baking soda deodorant
Ceiling fan bracket
Hooks for under porch
Pine scented air freshners
Powder for the horse
Daniel Shays 222
A farmer and one time army captain who led Shays rebellion
James Bowdoin 222
Governor of Massachusetts, what's a protester against British taxes, now characterize the Westin dissents as illegal revels
Shays rebellion 222
Cause leaders throughout the country to worry about the Confederations ability to handle civil disorder
John jay 222
Wrote to George Washington, our affairs seem to lead to some crisis, some revolution - something I cannot foresee or conjecture. I am uneasy and apprehensive more so than during the war.
Annapolis, Maryland 223
James Madison, convince the Confederation Congress to allow a September 1786 meeting of delegates at Annapolis Maryland to try again to revise the trade regulation powers of the articles
Constitutional convention of 1787 224
Rhode Island refused to send a single representative. Most delegates were from the wealthier classes. Convention establish the 3/5 clause in counting slaves for the apportionment of representation. All the three delegates signed the constitution produced by the convention
Great compromise 224
Broke the stalemate in the Virginia and New Jersey plans to produce the basic structural features of the emerging United States Constitution
Tended to be merchants, lawyers, and urban Artisans who favored the new constitution as the large landowners and slaveholders
Tended to be rural, Western, and non-commercial, men who's access to News was limited and who's participation in state government was tenuous
Mercy Otis Warren 229
An anti-federalist woman writing under the name a Columbia patriot
Articles of confederation fail 215
Lacked the power to enforce its tax requisitions. Indians did not want to give up their land.
British lost the war because 201
Uncertainty of supplies, insecurity about food and reluctance to pursue the Continental Army aggressively, miss use of loyalist energies, and the French Aided the colonists
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