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2002 version of study guide. Important vocab terms
Terms in this set (51)
carbohydrate-hydrolyzing enzyme, part of saliva
lipid-hydrolyzing enzyme, part of saliva
Lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
a valve that allows the food to pass into the stomach
The chemical break down of a compound due to a reaction with water
Stomach cell that secretes gastric lipase and pepsinogen (a precursor to pepsin)
Breaks down triglycerides into free fatty acids, and diglycerides,
Initiates the hydrolysis of proteins
secreted by the parietal cells, a protein responsible for vit B absorption
secreted by the parietal cells of the stomach
stomach cells that secrete mucus containing glycoproteins and bicarbonate
produces gastric acid, which helps to kill pathogens, activate pepsin and intrinsic factor, and helps to break down proteins and polypeptides
Hormone secreted to stimulate intragastric secretion of HCL and Pepsinogen.
The shedding of the outermost layer of skin or cells.
Prompted by acidic chyme entering the duodenum, this hormone is released into circulation
Prompted by fat or protein entering the proximal duodenum, and secreted by the duodenum
Pancreatic inactive digestive enzymes secreted by Cholecystokinn
Tripsinogen, proelastase, chymotrypsinogen, procolipase, procarboxypeptidase A & B.
Converts trypsinogen into trypsin when in the small intestine
converts the other zymogens to elastase, chymotrypsin, colipase, carboxypeptides A & B.
Serum albumin concentration
reflects the body's protein reserves. Levels below 5.5g/dL = protein malnutrition etc. Levels below 3.5 g/dL = dehydration or hypothyroidism.
Blood urea nitrogen concentration (BUN)
reflectes the bodys nitrogen content. Elevated amounts would indicate renal failure. Low amounts would indicate liver disease.
is a fluorescent cross-linking compound of collagen fibers
a measure of the concentration of red blood cells within the blood. Used to determine iron status.
evaluated by circulating concentrations of the individual vitamins, amount of prothrombin time, and mean corpuscular volume.
Mean Corpusular Volume
or "mean cell volume" (MCV), is a measure of the average RBC size that is reported as part of a standard complete blood count. The MCV is calculated by dividing the total volume of packed RBC (also known as hematocrit) by the total number of RBC.
Immune System Status
determined by the total lymphocyte count. Below 800 lymphocytes/mm3 shows severe nutritional depletion.
assessed by capillary refill time or urinary turbidity.
Serum Malondialdyhyde concentration
used to assess antioxidant status
Erythrocyte glutathione reductase
activity used to assess antioxidant status
Serum transferrrin concentration
determines the capacity of RBC to carry iron
Serum ferritin concentration
determines the iron reserves
BMI - Body mass index
calculated by dividing body weight in kg by height in meters squared. kg/m2
Total muscle mass measurement
Urinary excretion of creatinine and 3-methyl-histidine
Body fluid volume concentration
measured by content of stable isotopes of potassium
measured by fasting plasma glucose concentration or OGTT (oral glucose tolerance test)
decreased plasma sodium concentration. Caused by rapid fluid retention or loss of sodium.
increased plasma sodium concentration
decreased plasma potassium concentration. Leads to smooth muscle dysfunction.
increased plasma potassium concentrations. Leads to skeletal muscle or cardiac disturbances.
decreased plasma calcium concentration. Leads to irritability of skeletal and smooth muscle.
increased plasma calcium concentration.
a condition that is the consequence of a previous disease or injury
when plasma pH is less than 7.35
when the body has a decreased rate of CO2 excretion
when the body has an increased rate of CO2 excretion and the plasma pH therefore raises above 7.45
when alterations in metabolism generates increased plasma non-volatile organic acids that lower the pH
increased amounts of alkali leading to elevation of plasma to above 7.45
an amino acid disorder. A defect in the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzymes, which can lead to mental retardation. Tyrosine supplementation can help.
Tyrosinnemia type I
an amino acid disorder. A defect in the fumarylacetoacetate hydroxylase enzyme. Chronic hyperthrodinemia can cause rickets and hepatomegaly. Low phenylalanine and tyrosine can help.
caused by a defect in the enzyme keto acid decarboxylase. Low leucine, isoleucine and valine intake can help.
a defect in the enzyme cystathione synthase. Chronic conditions (hyperhomocysteinemia) can cause cardiovascular disease. Low methionine and supplementation with betaine, folic acid, vit. B6 and B12 can help.
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