Freedman's Bureau
federal agency set up in 1865 to provide food, schools, and medical care to freed slaves in the South
a system used on southern farms after the civil war in which farmers worked land owned by someone else in return for a small portion of the crops.
Tenant Farming
system of farming in which a person rents land to farm from a planter
a white Southerner who joined the Republican party during the Reconstruction period. they were also considered traitors to the Southern cause. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.
Northerners who went to the South during Reconstruction. They carried their belongings in carpetbags, and most intended to settle in the South and make money there. Part of the radical government, they passed much needed reforms.
Hiram Revels
the first African American senator
40 Acres and a Mule
promised (but not delivered) to newly freed slaves
Black Codes
laws passed in the south just after the civil war aimed at controlling freedmen and enabling plantation owners to exploit african american workers
Compromise of 1877
Ended Reconstruction. Republicans promise 1) Remove military from South, 2) Appoint Democrat to cabinet (David Key postmaster general), 3) Federal money for railroad construction and levees on Mississippi river; as long as Hayes became the president
13th Amendment
Abolished slavery
14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
15th Amendment
Citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Johnson's Impeachment
he intentionally violates Tenure Act because it was set upt to get him impeached by firing Secretary of War Edwin Stantin, at the Trial his lawyer says his only crime is opposing Congress, 12 democrats and 7 republicans vote him "not guilty", so he escaped impeachment by one vote
Stands for Ku Klux Klan and started right after the Civil War in 1866. The Southern establishment took charge by passing discriminatory laws known as the black codes. Gives whites almost unlimited power. They masked themselves and burned black churches, schools, and terrorized black people
Reconstruction Act of 1867
a.) put the South under military rule b.)Ordered states to hold new elections for delegates to create new state constitutions c.) Required all states to allow all qualified male voters to vote in elections d.) Barred those who supported the Confederacy from voting.
Radical Republicans
Senators and congressmen who, strictly identifying the Civil War with the abolitionist cause, sought swift emancipation of the slaves, punishment of the rebels, and tight controls over the former Confederate states after the war.
Lincoln's 10% Plan
Lincoln's reconstruction plan which would allow a southern state to reenter the union if only 10% of the voters in that state pledged allegiance to the union.
Presidential Reconstruction
was the President's idea of reconstruction : all states had to end slavery, states had to declare that their secession was illegal, and a small % men had to pledge their loyalty to the U.S.
Congressional Reconstruction
Radical Republicans Reconstruction-
• Passed 14th and 15th amendments
• Military reconstruction act divided the south into five military districts
• New state constitutions required to guarantee voting rights
• Military rule protected voting rights for African Americans
• Empowered African Americans in government and supported their education
Radical Republican Reconstruction
punish south, protect former slaves; US military occupation of South, Confederate military leaders needed pardon to hold office, protect Blacks right to vote
Andrew Johnson
17th president of the United States, came to office after Lincoln's assassination and opposed Radical Republicans; Impeachment trial based on his opposition to Reconstruction efforts by Congress
John Wilkes Booth
was an American stage actor who, as part of a conspiracy plot, assassinated Abraham Lincoln, the 16th President of the United States, at Ford's Theatre in Washington, D.C. on April 14, 1865.