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113 terms

BMCC- Nursing- 313- Peds Exam 1

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Peds Exam 1
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HepB
Hepatitus B vaccine; monovalent=all newborns; if mom=HBsAg-(+) then HepB+HBIG= 12hrs; mom=HBs Ag- (unknown)= only HepB= 12hrs and test mom (HBIG no later than 1wk); Second dose=1-2mths; Final >24wks then test HBs-Ag= 9-18mths; => cirrhosis or liver cancer; deltoid and vastus lateralis, NOT dorsogluteal; Contra= Yeast preservatives reactivity, pregnancy, preterm birth;
Rota
Rotavirus Vaccine; >6-12wks NO later; Final dose by 32wks No later; Contra= analphylaxis, HIV, immuniodeficiency (radiation, drugs, leukemia, blood disorders, cancer), gastroenteritis, ferile, intussusception, pregnancy, hx of rota, intussusception, fever;
DTaP
Diptheria, tetanus toxoids and acellular pertussis vaccine; >6wks; 4th as early as 12months if 6mths from 3rd; Final @4-6yrs; diptheria=> respiratory nasopharyngitis or obstructive paryngotracheitis, vaginal otic conjunctival or cutaneous lesions; pertussis=neurologic contraindications (encephalopathy), inconsolable crying, fam hx for seizures, SIDS;
Hib
Haemophilus influenza type b conjugate vaccine; >6wks; If PRP-OMP at 2-4mths then 6mths not req.; TriHIBit= booster@>12mths not for primary; => menengitis, epiglottitis, pneumonia, septic arthritis and sepsis; Contra= none;
PCV
Pneumoccocal Vaccine; >6wks; => seticemia, meningitis, otitis media, sinusitis and pneumonia; Contra= LBWI, anaphylaxis, PPV within 2mths; minor illness, Upper respiratory inf., allergic rhinitis;
PPV
Pneumoccocal Vaccine; >2yrs;
TIV
trivalent inactivated influenza; >6mths; Contra= analphylaxis (eggs), GBS within 6wks, Pregnancy
LAIV
live, attenuated influenza vaccine; >2yrs;
MMR
measles, mumps, rubella; >12mths; 2nd @4-6yrs; contraindication= pregnancy, recent immunoglobulin, simultaneous PPD, altered immunodeficiency, Breastfeeding, HIV, reaction to eggs or neomycin, thrombocytopenia;
Var
Varicella Vaccine; >12mths; 2nd@ 4-6yrs; (live attenuated); together or 1 month apart from MMR; Contra= pregnancy, breastfeeding, anaphylaxis (neomycin/gelatin), recent immunoglobulin, HIV, immunodeficiency, corticosteroids;
HepA
Hepatitus A; >12mths; 2nd @6mths apart; fecal-oral route= abrupt, fever, malaise, anorexia, nausea, abdominal discomfort, dark urine, and jaundice;
MCV4 and MPSV4
Meningococcal Vaccine; >2yrs; => amputations, skin scarring, hearing loss, and neurologic disabilities; Contra= Hx encephalopathy, GBS (6wks), progressive neuropathy (epilepsy), fever, Rx's to Dtap, Brachial neuritis, immunosuppresion, HIV, Antibiotic use, minor illness;
IPV
inactivated poliovius vaccine; contraindication= anaphylaxis, pregnancy, breastfeeding, diarrhea;
HPV (Gardisil)
Human papilloma vaccine; Contra= pregnancy, yeast Rx, immunosuppressed female, minor acute illness, lactation,
Neonate
birth-1mth
Infancy
1m-1y
Toddler
1y-3y
Preschooler
3y-6y
School Age
6y-12y
Late Childhood/Adolescent
13y-18y
Factors for Growth and Development
Genetics, Nutrition, Prenatal, Environmental Factors, Family and community, Cultural Factors, Socioeconomic status
Trust vs Mistrust
Infancy- Birth-1y.
Autonomy vs. shame and doubt
Toddler- 1y-3y
Initiative vs. Guilt
Preschooler- 3y-6y; plays and lives life to the fullest, sense of accomplishment; rivalry with same sex parent.
Industry vs. Inferiority
School Age- 6y-12y; child identifies with same sex parent.
Identity vs. Role Confusion
Adolescence- 13y-18y
46th?
in the world for infant mortality
Childhood mortality
>1y= car seats, cooking accidents and guns
Growth and Development= 1st year
weight and head circumference always growing... never down.
Nutrition= 1m-4m
BM/Formula
Nutrition= 4m-5m
BM/Formula + cereal; 1st solid food= juice, strained fruits, strained veg, meats, yogurts (soy 1st). 1 new item 3-5days.
Nutrition= 4m-6m
iron fortified formula is very important as fetal hemoglobin drops.
Nutrition 8m-9m
junior foods, cheerios, crackers, small pieces of fruit; NO grapes, carrots, raisins, marshmallows, hot dogs or honey.
Vomiting and Diarrhea in the newborn
very dangerous; body comp. 75-80% water mostly ECF=> rapid dehydration.
20kcal/Oz=
regular formula.
Injury Prevention=
Aspiration, suffocation, burn/sunburn, drowning, ingestions, overdoses.
Development Benchmarks- 3m
some head lag, regards hand, pulling motion, interest in environment, recognition to objects and faces, vocalization= cooing, babble, chuckles;
Development Benchmarks- 4m
↓ head lag, grasping both hands, drooling, constant sound, teething;
Development Benchmarks- 5m
palmer graps, sitting, rolls side to side, teeth, BW dbl, Smiles, fam from strangers, playful, vowels.
Development Benchmarks- 6m
Pincer grasp small object and manipulations, Tripod position, rolls back to abdomen, stranger anxiety, arms out, likes and dislikes, peek a boo, vocal imitation.
Development Benchmarks- 7m
Hand to hand tranfer, bears weight on feet, imitates acts, chained syllables (dada),
Development Benchmarks- 8m
Stands holding on, regular bowel pattern, responds to "NO"
Development Benchmarks- 9m
Pulls to standing, Comprehends "NO"
Development Benchmarks- 10m
demontrates independence= dressing, feeding; locomotion, prone to supine position, sits by falling on butt, follows picture books, stops behavior to "NO"
Development Benchmarks- 11m
Explores, walks holding furniture, plays games, shakes head to "NO", imitates speech;
Development Benchmarks- 12m
Turns pages in book, walks w/ 1 hand, determined walking, BW 3x, Ant Fon closes, Name recognition, Meaning comprehension, imitates animal sounds, comprehends simple commands;
Posterior Fontanels
close at 2m
Blankies
never put to sleep with.
FTT
failure to thrive= inadequate weight gains= below 5th percentile on growth charts
Organice FTT
identifiable cause; common= CHD, DF, HIV, Metabolic Syndrome; less common= endocrine, neurologic condition or lesions and GERD malabsorption syndrome.
Non-Organic FTT
Non-Identifiable medical causes; maybe Psychological= Accidental, Neglectful, Deliberate;
Physical Assessments in FTT
weight falls below 5th%, decline in growth curve, delays in developmental milestones, language delays, decreased muscle mass, abdominal distention, hypotonic, weakness, feeding and dietary hx;
Behavioral Assessment in FTT
Avoidant eye contact, Sleep disturbance, Cranky;
Diagnostic Testing in FTT
Comprehensive hx, Developmental Sx, Nutritional Sx, Growth Curve, Urinalysis, Swerat CL Test, Stool specimen, T4;
SIDS
Sudden infant death syndrome; leading cause of death in infants 90% of cases >6m; More common= M, 2-4m, in winter or spring.
Factors of SIDS
ALTE, cyanosis, respiratory distress, preemie, multiple births, exposure to smoking, poor prenatal care, poor weight gain of mom, brainstem defect, prone sleeping, sibling with SIDS, irish twins, soft bleeding, use of pillows;
ALTE
Apparent Life Threatening Event; apnea, change in color (pallor, cyanosis, redness), change in muscle tone (usually hypotonia), choking, gagging, or coughing, and which usually involves a significant intervention and even cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by the caregiver who witnesses the event
Back to sleep
BACK TO SLEEP
SIDS Prevention
back to sleep, educate parents, no pillow, no quilts, firm approved bedding.
Post SIDS interventions
contact fam, friends, clergy; SIDS support group referral; Compassionate/Empathetic Care; Fam advocacy in ER, Allow time, take hand/foot prints, locks of hair and photos;
Leading causes of Infants Death
Congenital anomalies, Complications of prematurity, shaken baby syndrome, neonatal infections, Accidental (MVA, drowning);
Car Seat Faces Back...
til 1yo and 20lbs.
Corrosive Poisoning
lye, acid, strong cleaning products; assess and manage airway, do not induce vomiting; gastric lavage and NS.
Non-Corrosive Poisoning
OTC, Rx meds, simple cleaners, plants, alcohol; Do Not induce vomiting, administer activated charcoal, manage effects of substance ingested.
Tylenol
#1 ingested poison; administer mucomyst and monitor liver function.
Rat Poison
coumadin; monitor PT and give Vit K.
Dish Washer Detergent
very toxic, contains bleach; assess GI irritations, needs gastric lavage.
Vitamins containing Fe-
gastric lavage; Assess for GI bleeding;
Prevention of Poisoning
keep out of reach, discard old medications, do no buy large size OTC drugs, store things in original containers, never tell children that medication is "candy"
Sources of Lead poisoning
pipes, paint, soil, dust near industries and roadways, ceramic ware, leaded gas, folk remedies, candy from mexico.
Effects of Lead poisoning
interferes with making hemoglogin, anemia; damages proximal tubules= glucosuria, proteinuria, ketonuria, chelating agents; Nuerologic= blocks calcium= impulsive, hyperactive, clumsy, speech.
BLL <10mcg/dl
reassess or rescreen in 1 year.
BLL 10-14mcg/dl
provide family with lead poisoning education, follow-up testing, and social service referral if necessary.
BLL 15-19mcg/dl
Provide family with lead poisoning education (dietary and environmental), follow-up testing, and social service referral as needed; if BLL persists, initiate actions for BLL of 20 to 44mcg/dl.
BLL 20-44mcg/dl
provide coordination of care, clinical management, environmental investigation and lead hazard control.
BLL 45-69mcg/dl
within 48 hours, provide coordination of care and clinical management, including treatment, environmental investigation and lead hazard control. The child must not remain in a lead-hazardous environment if resolution is to occur.
BLL >70mcg/dl
Immediately provide medical treatment and begin coordination of care, clinical management, environmental investigation, and lead hazard control.
Chelation
treatment for heavy metal poisoning; IV or IM; may take several tx's; follow up required.
Lead poisoning interventions
prevention= identifying sources, remove or corrective actions.
Toddlers 20-40lbs...
front facing car seat.
Children 40-80lbs...
car booster seat.
Until 100lbs...
back seat with neck above airbag level.
MVA safety
always in back seat, disable airbags for small children, flat seat belts and straps, appropriate clothing.
Physical growth rate by weight...
5lbs/1yr.
Age 3- Gross Motor Skills
rid a trike, going upstairs alternating feet but come down step by step.
Age 4- Gross Motor Skills
skip/hop on one foot, catch a ball, throw a ball overhand, and walk down stairs alternating.
Age 5- Gross Motor Skills
preschooler skips on alternating feet, jumps rope, skates with good balance.
Age 3- Fine Motor Skills
uses scissors, draw, copy a diamond and triangle, tie shoelaces.
Age 5- Fine Motor Skills
dresses completely.
Use Questions, plurals, pronouns and past tense of verbs?
between 3-4yrs.
associative play
preschoolers- imitates adults behaviors with a lack of organized rules.
Imaginary playmates...
2.5-3.5y
Stage of Industry...
attitude's towards work, skill development, independence, goal achievement, peer approval is important.
Independent Exams start at...
schoo-age.
HEADSS
home life, education, alcohol, drugs, sexual activity/suicide.
Pulse on children under 1y...
always apical
Temperature...
rectal only.
Measurements at every visit until 2y...
Height, weight and head circumference.
Altered by pain, anxiety, fear, crying, medications, disease, fever...
pulses, respirations
RR in Neonate
30-80
RR in Infant
30-50
RR in 2-6y
20-30
RR in 10y
18-25
RR in 18y
15-20
Croup
barking, seal like.
Startle to sound...
<4m
Straight line from eyes
ears!
Neurologic Assessment...
glascow, cranial nerves, natural state, LOC, spontaneous movement and reactions. = playful, irritable, cranky.
DDH
developmental dysplasia of the hip- use Ortolani and Barlow tests- abducting the thighs to test the hip for subluxation or dislocation. [other signs= shortening of limb asymmetric thigh and gluteal folds, or broadening of perineum]
Mottled
spotted or blotchy with different shades of colors.
Crying improves pallor...
valve issue= more likely pulmonic
Restless and Irritable=
hypoxia.