possible social psychology exam #2 questions

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A group of theories that describe how people explain the causes of behavior is known as
attribution theory
the "Quiz Show" study by Ross and colleagues found that in judging the general knowledge of the contestant and questioner...
observers and even contestants fell victim to the fundamental attribution error
the system that social perceivers rely on first is
intuitive and automatic
which of the following is true of mind perception?

a) the more humanlike the target object, the more likely we are to attribute to it qualities of mind

b) the less humanlike the target object, the more likely we are to attribute to it qualities of mind

c) it occurs for perception of inanimate objects only

d) it only occurs to perception of humans
a) the more humanlike the target object, the more likely we are to attribute to it qualities of mind
estimates the probability that an event will happen based no the ease with which one can recall previous instances of this event reflect the
availability heuristic
In the Jones and Harris (1967) study, participants read essays presumably written by another student that had either been assigned or chose to write in support of a particular position. What statement is consistent with the findings of this study?
participants were more likely to infer the student's attitude from the essay if they believed it was a chosen topic rather than assigned
the tendency to think that most victims of Hurricane Sandy were irresponsible and naive for not evacuating their homes before the storm his is most likely to result from
belief in a just world
Willis and Todorov (2006) showed college students photos of strangers' faces and found which of the following?
even when they saw the photos for less than one second, participants' ratings of the faces were highly correlated with the ratings made by others who were allowed to look at the faces for as long as they wanted to
participants in one study rated fictional food additives that were more difficult to pronounce as more hazardous to health. These results demonstrate that
people tend to fear things that sound unfamiliar
When _____ is low, it is difficult for the perceiver to attribute behavior to either the person or the stimulus; instead, the best that can be said is that the behavior was caused by transient circumstances
consistency
A target's "gaze disengagement" tends to lead perceivers to
form a negative impression of a target
scripts are often culture-specific. this means that...
the same behaviors may be perceived very differently in different cultures
the study of social perception addresses all of the following except

a) the way that expectations can distort reality

b) the strategies people use to create a positive self-image

c) how people explain the behavior of others

d) how people form impressions of others
b) the strategies people use to create a positive self-image
the trait negatively bias refers to the tendency for
negative trait information to have greater impact on impressions
which research finding is most consistent with Darwin's hypothesis that the ability to interpret emotion from facial expressions has survived value?
people are quicker to recognize angry faces than happy faces
researchers suggest that people seem to commit the fundamental attribution error
even when they are aware of the situational constraints of their behavior
what do psychologists mean when they describe a judgment of another person as based on "thin slices"?
the judgment was based on a very limited behavior sample
Bella is a teacher who suspects that a student is trying to deceive her. Under which of the following conditions does Bella have the best chance of being accurate in her attempts to detect whether or not the student is lying
Bella asks the student to recount her story in reverse chronological order
the study of Balcetis and Dunning (2006) in which participants thought that they were taking part in a taste-testing experiment showed that?
people tend to see what they want to see
what is a question that reflects the primary question underlying the correspondent inference theory
does an observer infer that an actor's behavior corresponds with the actor's personality?
In a study by Phelan and colleagues (2008), participants read about male and female candidates for a managerial position. Compared to comparable male candidates, female candidates who emphasized their independence and leadership ability were rated as
higher in competence but lower in social skills
research findings regarding dehumanization indicate that
people tend to process outgroup faces in a manner similar to their processing of nonhuman objects
Implicit racism is correlated with ____ for interactions with a minority group member
reduced eye gaze
which of the following is not discrimination

a) Signing a petition to keep a minority group out of the neighborhood

b) Giving a pink toy to a girl and a blue toy to a boy

c) Believing that baby-faced men are harmless

d)Hiring a thin candidate rather than an obese one with the same credentials
c) Believing that baby-faced men are harmless
according to the self-regulation of prejudice responses model, ___ motivated individuals may learn to control their prejudices ____ effectively over time
internally, more
according to the social-role theory, gender differences in social behavior are the result of
the unequal gender-based division of labor
according to the stereotype content model, migrant farm workers who move to an area with a shortage of farming jobs would likely be viewed as
low in warmth and low in competence
Adelheid was watching a series of commercials in which women were portrayed as having relatively low self-confidence, less independence, and fewer career aspirations than men do. As a result, she will probably _______ than women who watched commercials portraying women in counter-stereotypical fashion
Perform worse on a math test
In the aftermath of the Amadou Diallo shooting, several psychologists have investigated the influence that a suspect's race might play in police decisions to shoot or not shoot. The results of these studies suggest that
mere awareness of racial stereotypes is enough to influence police behavior, even if the officers do not endorse these stereotypes
A junior high coach decides to separate his basketball players into an A team and a B team. These two teams regularly play each other and compete for rewards, such as time at the drinking fountain and use of the new basketballs. The Robbers Cave experiment would suggest that the coach's new arrangement is likely to
lead to animosity between the A team and the B team
Consider the Implicit Association Test in which people are asked to categorize words as well as Caucasian/African-American names. If you were to design a similar measure to assess implicit associations related to age, and more specifically, implicit negative beliefs about older people, which pattern of results might your IAT produce to indicate such ageism?
participants take longer to pair positive words with older-sounding names and negative words with younger-sounding names than vice versa
some border-town residents dislike illegal immigrants because they fear that the immigrants will take jobs away from them. these feelings can be explained by
realistic conflict theory
Linley is trying to reduce racism by having children of different races work on projects together. Each student is given information critical to the project and has to collaborate with their different-race group members by sharing that information to earn a good grade on the project. The classroom norms are supportive of cross-race interaction. Which condition essential to the success of the contact hypothesis is missing?
Personal interaction
Social categorization leads people to
overestimate differences between groups
ingroup members display the outgroup homogeneity effect because
they lack familiarity with members of the outgroup
negative feelings directed at women's abilities, values, and ability to challenge the power of men are referred to as
hostile sexism
the tendency to perceive members of an outgroup as less variable, or more similar to one another, than members of the ingroup is called the
outgroup homogeneity effect
what is a mechanism that does not perpetuate stereotypes
the jigsaw classroom
according to the social identity theory, people display ingroup favoritism
as means of increasing self esteem
the ABCs of social psychology are affect, behavior, and cognition. Put the three major concepts of chapter 5 in the ABC order by considering whether they correspond to affect, behavior, or cognition
prejudice, discrimination, stereotype
Wells and Petty (1980) videotaped students as they listened to a speech. The results of this study indicated that
students signaled their attitudes by nodding or shaking their heads
public opinion pollsters, in trying to assess attitudes about particular subjects, have become aware that attitude responses seem to be affected by a lot of things expect
the length of the questionnaire
what is not an explanation for why people in a positive mood are susceptible to persuasion
a positive mood makes people more thoughtful, so they are more likely to engage in central processing
what is a true statement concerning the impact of body movements on persuasion
people who nod their heads up and down express greater agreement with a persuasive message than those who nod their heads side to side
High self-monitors respond more to _____ advertising
image-oriented
Josue listened to a speech on the radio advocating the increased use of automobiles that are not reliant on fossil fuels. One would expect the sleeper effect to be greatest if Josue found out about the background of the speaker _____ the speech and was asked about his views about the issue _____
after, a few weeks later
Jaycie is extremely judgmental. She has strong opinions about politics, social issues, and moral concern. Jaycie is high in the
need for evaluation
What source characteristic best explains why a company might recruit a supermodel to endorse its produces
Likeability
what is a situation that should prompt a little decisional dissonance
Audrey doesn't like cats much, so she decides that her new pet will be a dog
People who are high in intelligence and/or self-esteem tend to be _____ vulnerable to persuasion when compared to people low in intelligence and/or self-esteem
equally
what theory suggests that intentions to perform a behavior are best predicted by attitudes toward the behavior, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control?
theory of planned behavior
the more products a celebrity endorses
the less trustworthy she becomes in the eyes of consumers
a negative reaction to the feeling that one's freedom is being threatened is called
psychological reactance
persuasive communication is the outcome of three possible factors. what is an example of something that is not one of those factors?
context
the idea that we infer our own attitude by cooly observing ourselves and the circumstances of our behavior is most consistent with the
self-perception theory
According to research by Tormala and Petty (2002), an attitude can be ____ by a persuasive message or argument ____ it
strengthened, against
a social psychology graduate student who works long hours for little pay becomes increasingly convinced that she loves social psychology. this student's attitude toward her chosen field of study is most likely the result of
insufficient justification
research indicates that subliminal influence
usually occurs in the short term for simple judgements
the process by which we form an attitude toward a neutral stimulus because of its association with a positive or negative person, place, or thing is called
evaluative conditioning
a sleeper effect occurs when
a persuasive message from a non credible source becomes more persuasive over time