APWH 13: Islam

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Muhammad
Founder of Islam.
Islam
The name for the religion that teaches that the Quran is a record of God's revelations and that God had one final prophet circa 600 AD.
Muslims
The name for those who follow Islam.
Qu`ran
The holy book of Islam. Contains the teachings of Muhammad as recorded by devout Muslims.
Five Pillars
The most important laws of Islam. Includes a monotheistic statement, giving alms to the poor, and visiting Mecca.
jihad
Literally "the struggle for the faith." Muslim concept that has been alternately taught as a spiritual and physical concept.
mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship.
Dome of the Rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock.
dar al-Islam
An Arabic term that means the "house of Islam" and that refers to all lands under Islamic rule. The name for the pan-Islamic nations.
Abu Bakr
The first Muslim caliph. Notably expanded dar al-Islam through conquest.
caliph
A earthly successor to Muhammad.
legitimacy
The state of having political authority that is authorized or recognized by the law, the people, etc.
Sunni
A member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad. The largest of the two major sects.
Shi`a (Shia)
The branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad. The smaller of the two major Islamic sects.
Umayyad
The first dynasty of Arab caliphs. They had been a powerful ruling family in Mecca. They established their capital at Damascus and expanded Islam through conquest.
Abbasid
Second dynasty of the Arab caliphate. They were noted for their administrative skills, their trade, and the acquisition of knowledge from every area they ruled.
Baghdad
Capital of Abbasid dynasty located in modern-day Iraq. This was the center for administration, trade, and culture for dar al-Islam.
astrolabe
An instrument used by sailors to determine their location by observing the position of the stars and planets.
lateen sail
Triangular sail that made it possible to tack against the wind; used in the Indian Ocean trade.
Sufi
Muslim sect that focuses on the mystical dimension of Islam. They look toward spiritual feeling rather than doctrinal purity.