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Development over the lifespan
Terms in this set (33)
Identity versus role confusion
Successful outcomes of earlier stages pave the way to positive resolution. This is a time of questioning values, plans, and priorities.
Constructing an Identity involves:
• Defining who you are
• What you value
• And the directions you choose to pursue in live
Adolesence is a time to see yourself as a:
• Rational person
• Who acts on the basis of reason
• Takes responsibility for those actions
• And can explain them
Commitment to values, beliefs, and goals following a period of exploration
Exploration without having reached commitment
Commitment in the absence of exploration
An apathetic state characterized by the absence of both exploration and commitment
Exploring and adopting values from both the adolescents subculture and dominant culture
A sense of ethnic group membership and the feelings and attitudes associated with that membership
the degree to which morality is central to self concept
increased gender stereotyping of attitudes and behavior and movement toward a more traditional gender identity.
• This occurs for both sexes
• From biological, social and cognitive factors are involved
• As puberty magnifies, teens will spend more time thinking about themselves in gender linked ways.
• Parents influence further supports this gender intensification with "appropriate activities and behaviors"
• Declines by middle to late adolescence
• Some may question the value of gender stereotypes for themselves and society and are more likely to build androgynous gender identity.
sense of oneself as a self-governing individual
Sex differences in friendships
• Frequently come together to just "talk"
• This contains more self-disclosure and supportive statements
• Communal concerns
• Gather for activity
• Discussions usually focus on accomplishments involving competition and conflict
• Do not form close friendship ties, but the quality of their friendships is more variable.
• Androgynous boys are just as likely as girls to form intimate same sex ties, where "masculine" boys are less likely.
group of about 5-7 members who are good friends who resemble each other in family background, attitudes and values
the psychological impact of adaptation to a new culture.
Morality is externally controlled, as in Piagets heteronomous stage, children accept the rules of authority figures and judge actions by their consequences.
move beyond unquestioning support for their own society's rules and laws. They define morality in terms of abstract principles and values that apply to all situations and societies.
Warning signs of suicide
1. Putting affairs in order
2. Verbal cues
3. Feelings of "not caring" anymore
4. Extreme fatigue
5. No desire to socialize
6. Easily frustrated
7. Emotional outbursts
8. Inability to concentrate
9. Decline in grades or discipline problems
10. Neglect of personal appearance
11. Sleep changes
12. Appetite change
13. Physical complaints
Suicide occurs in two types of young people:
1. Adolescents who are highly intelligent but solitary, withdrawn and unable to meet their own standards or those of important people in their lives.
2. Adolescents who show antisocial tendencies and express their unhappiness through bullying, fighting, stealing, increased risk taking and drug abuse. Besides being hostile and destructive, they turn their anger and disappointment inward.
Factors related to depression
• Failing at something important
• Parental divorce
• End of a close friendship
• Romantic ending
• Feeling out of place
• Less than what you aspire to be
Larger more loosely organized group, formed by several cliques with similar values.
referring to extensively discussing and speculating about problems, and focusing on negative feelings with peers.
Kohlbergs stages of moral development:
• Punishment and obedience orientation - focus on the fear of authority and the avoidance of punishment for behaving morally
• The instrumental purpose orientation - they view "right action" as flowing from self-interest and understand reciprocity as an equal exchange of favors.
• The "good boy-good girl: orientation or the morality of interpersonal cooperation.
• Wants to be the person that is highly thought of as trustworthy, loyal, respectful, helpful and nice. They express the same concern for the welfare of another as they do for themselves, as in the golden rule.
-The social order maintaining orientation
• Individuals believe that laws should never be disobeyed because they are vital for ensuring societal order and cooperative relations between individuals.
Post Conventional Level
• The social contract orientations
• Individuals regard laws and rules as flexible for furthering human purposes.
• The universal ethical principle orientation
• The right action is defined by self chosen ethical principles of conscience that are valid for all people, regardless of law and social agreement. It mentions worth and dignity of each person.
Cognitive experiences that affect moral development
Parenting, Schools, Peers, Culture
A. Parenting practices in childhood
• Combination of warmth
• Exchange of ideas
• Appropriate demands for maturity
• In adolescence:
• Parents engage in moral discussions
• Encourage prosocial behavior
• Create a supportive atmosphere by listening sensitively
• Asking clarifying questions
• Presenting higher level reasoning
• Is a powerful predictor of movement to Kohlberg's Stage 4 or higher
• This is due to young people being introduced to social issues that extend beyond their personal relationship to: political and cultural groups.
• Helps them recognize the cultural diversity that does exist
• Moral understanding comes from differing viewpoints
• Within the social structure young people must negotiate and compromise with agemates
• Recognition that social life can be based on cooperation between equals rather than authority relations.
• The more your nation is industrialized the faster you can experience Kohlberg's stages
• Isolated individuals have limited contact with which to have learning exchanges with other
• More importantly, many nations/villages develop their moral guidelines as a group, for the group
• Less emphasis is on the individual
• In western societies, moral reasoning is developed for many through the inner private conscience.
Gilligans morality theory
Care-based morality is based on the following principles:
Emphasizes interconnectedness and universality.
Acting justly means avoiding violence and helping those in need.
Care-based morality is thought to be more common in girls because of their connections to their mothers.
Because girls remain connected to their mothers, they are less inclined to worry about issues of fairness.
Justice-based morality is based on the following principles:
Views the world as being composed of autonomous individuals who interact with another.
Acting justly means avoiding inequality.
Is thought to be more common in boys because of their need to differentiate between themselves and their mothers.
Because they are separated from their mothers, boys become more concerned with the concept of inequality.
Researchers have found a tendency for males to adopt the justice perspective and for females to be more likely than males to adopt the caring perspective.
Supporting healthy identity development
1. Engage in warm open communication
2. Initiate discussions that promote high level thinking at home and at school
3. Provide opportunities to participate in extracurricular activities and vocation training programs
4. Provide opportunities to talk with adults and peers who have worked through identity questions
5. Provide opportunities to explore ethnic heritage and learn about other cultures in an atmosphere of respect
Adjustment difficulties of foreclosure and diffusion
- They often display dogmatic, inflexible cognitive styles
- Internalizing the values and beliefs of parents and others without deliberate evaluation and resisting information that threatens their position.
- Most fear rejection by people on whom they depend for affection and self-esteem
Benefits of friendship
1. Provide opportunities to explore the self and develop a deep understanding of another.
* Through open honest communication
2. Provide a foundation for future intimate relationships
* Self disclosure
* Sharing of romance and intimacy
* The working out of problems
* Sharing different views, and trying out new ideas about relationship
3. Help young people deal with the stresses of adolescence
* enhance sensitivity to each other promoting sympathy and prosocial behavior
4. Can improve attitudes toward and involvement in school
* As teens enjoy interacting with friends at school they can develop a more positive attitude towards the educational process.
Factors leading to delinquincy
1. Difficult temperament
2. Cognitive deficits
3. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder
1. CONFLICT-RIDDEN HOME
2. LAX AND INCONSISTENT DISCIPLINE
LEADS MIDDLE CHILDHOOD OF:
1. Child conduct problems
4. Persistent aggression
A. REJECTION BY TYPICAL PEERS
B. ACADEMIC FAILURE
Both culminating in: commitment to deviant peer group
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