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Most blood cells are produced in the red marrow of bones.


A vertebra is considered to be an irregular bone.


A radiograph (X-ray) of a child's hand will show epiphyseal lines.


Concentric lamellae within an osteon are connected with each other by lacunae.


Osteogenic cells are bone stem cells that differentiate into osteoblasts and osteoclasts.


Intramembranous ossification is common in children, whereas endochondral ossification is typical in young adults.


Parathyroid hormone (PTH) binds to receptors on osteoblasts.


The skeleton does not
A. store calcium and phosphate ions.
B. store red blood cells.
C. provide support for most muscles.
D. protect the brain.
E. protect the spinal cord.

store red blood cells.

Osseous tissue is a(an) ____________ tissue.
A. connective
B. epithelial
C. dense regular
D. dense irregular
E. reticular


These are all tissues that are a part of a long bone except
A. osseous tissue.
B. nervous tissue.
C. adipose tissue.
D. cartilage.
E. transitional epithelium.

transitional epithelium.

This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "1" represent?
A. marrow cavity
B. compact bone
C. spongy bone
D. epiphyseal line
E. articular cartilage

marrow cavity

This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "4" represent?
A. marrow cavity
B. compact bone
C. spongy bone
D. epiphyseal line
E. articular cartilage

epiphyseal line

This image shows the anatomy of a long bone. What does "5" represent?
A. marrow cavity
B. compact bone
C. spongy bone
D. epiphyseal line
E. articular cartilag

articular cartilage

The expanded head at each end of a long bone is called
A. an epiphysis.
B. a diaphysis.
C. an articular cartilages.
D. a periosteum.
E. an endosteum.

an epiphysis.

A bone is covered externally with a sheath called ______________, whereas the internal surface is lined with _____________.
A. epiphysis; diaphysis
B. diaphysis; epiphysis
C. compact bone; spongy bone
D. periosteum; endosteum
E. endosteum; periosteum

periosteum; endosteum

_____________ are bone-forming cells.
A. Osteogenic (osteoprogenitor) cells
B. Osteoblasts
C. Osteoclasts
D. Osteocytes
E. Osteons


When ____________ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called _____________.
A. osteogenic cells; osteoblasts
B. osteoblasts; osteoclasts
C. osteoblasts; osteocytes
D. osteocytes; osteoclasts
E. osteocytes; osteoblasts

osteoblasts; osteocytes

This image shows the histology of osseous tissue. Label "2" represents ____________, which is(are) ____________.
A. canaliculi; interconnections among osteoblasts
B. an osteon; a stem cell
C. lacunae; sites of residence of osteocytes
D. lamella; interconnections among osteocytes
E. a central (haversian) canal; site of residence of osteoclasts

lacunae; sites of residence of osteocytes

Which of these is an inorganic component of the bone matrix?
A. proteoglycans
B. glycoproteins
C. collagen
D. hydroxyapatite
E. glycosaminoglycans


Spicules and trabeculae are found in
A. compact bone.
B. bone matrix.
C. yellow bone marrow.
D. red bone marrow.
E. spongy bone.

spongy bone.

Red bone marrow does not contain
A. myeloid tissue.
B. yellow bone marrow.
C. hemopoietic tissue.
D. white blood cells.
E. red blood cells.

yellow bone marrow.

____________ provide(s) hardness to bones, whereas ____________ provide(s) some degree of flexibility.
A. Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins
B. Collagen and elastic fibers; minerals
C. Glycoproteins; proteoglycans
D. Calcium carbonate; calcium phosphate
E. Proteins; collagen

Hydroxyapatite and other minerals; proteins

___________ have a ruffled border with many deep infoldings of the plasma membrane, whereas ____________ have long, thin, fingerlike cytoplasmic processes.
A. Osteoclasts; osteocytes
B. Osteocytes; osteoclasts
C. Osteoblasts; osteoclasts
D. Osteoblasts; osteocytes
E. Osteocytes; osteogenic cell

Osteoclasts; osteocytes

What would you find in the marrow cavity of the diaphysis of an adult humerus (arm bone)?
A. spongy bone
B. hemopoietic tissue
C. red bone marrow
D. yellow bone marrow
E. compact bone

yellow bone marrow

Which one of the following bone cells would have the greatest number of lysosomes?
A. osteoblasts
B. osteoclasts
C. osteocytes
D. osteogenic cells
E. stem cells


______________ are common in compact bone but rarely seen in spongy bone.
A. Lamellae
B. Osteoclasts
C. Lacunae
D. Central canals
E. Osteocytes

Central canals

Intramembranous ossification produces the
A. irregular bones of the vertebrae.
B. flat bones of the skull.
C. long bones of the limbs.
D. short bones of the wrist.
E. short bones of the ankle.

flat bones of the skull.

In endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is _____________, which is replaced by bone.
A. embryonic mesenchyme
B. fibrous membranes
C. hyaline cartilage
D. transitional epithelium
E. fibrocartilage

hyaline cartilage

Achondroplastic dwarfism is a hereditary condition in which the long bones of the limbs fail to elongate normally because of reduced hyperplasia and hypertrophy of cartilage in the
A. primary ossification center.
B. secondary ossification center.
C. primary bone marrow.
D. secondary bone marrow.
E. epiphyseal plate.

epiphyseal plate.

Chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the metaphysis.
A. zone of reserve cartilage
B. zone of cell proliferation
C. zone of cell hypertrophy
D. zone of calcification
E. zone of bone deposition

zone of cell proliferation

Mature bones are remodeled throughout life by employing
A. intramembranous ossification.
B. endochondral ossification.
C. interstitial growth.
D. appositional growth.
E. metaphysical growth.

appositional growth.

Bone elongation is a result of
A. cartilage growth.
B. muscle growth.
C. osseous tissue growth.
D. fibrous membrane addition.
E. dense irregular connective tissue addition.

cartilage growth.

A growing long bone in a child has only two areas of cartilage at the epiphysis. These two areas are
A. elastic cartilage and epiphyseal plate.
B. epiphyseal plate and epiphyseal line.
C. primary and secondary ossification centers.
D. fibrocartilage and articular cartilage.
E. articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate.

articular cartilage and epiphyseal plate.

_____________ is the process of dissolving bone and returning its minerals to the bloodstream.
A. Mineralization
B. Mineral deposition
C. Crystallization
D. Resorption
E. Ossification


Which of the following exemplifies a positive feedback process happening in bone mineral deposition?
A. The first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate
B. Osteoblasts neutralize inhibitors that prevent bone resorption
C. Osteoclasts secrete acid phosphatase that digests collagen
D. Collagen is digested by enzymes and hydroxyapatite by hydrochloric acid
E. Solubility product is reached in the tissue fluids

The first few crystals to form attract more calcium and phosphate

Blood Ca2+ deficiency stimulates __________ secretion, which leads to _____________.
A. calcitonin; more urinary phosphate reabsorption
B. calcitriol; more urinary phosphate excretion
C. parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity
D. growth hormone; increased osteoblast activity
E. thyroid hormone; less urinary calcium excretion

parathyroid hormone; increased osteoclast activity

Osteoporosis is most common in elderly women because of the lack of ___________, which would otherwise inhibit ____________.
A. dietary calcium; estrogen production
B. osteoblasts; osteoclast activity
C. estrogen; osteoclast activity
D. parathyroid hormone; osteocyte activity
E. exercise; osteoblast activity

estrogen; osteoclast activity

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