148 terms

The Life Span: Human Development for Helping Professionals. Chapters 9-15

STUDY
PLAY
Identify primary and secondary sexual characteristics
Primary sexual characteristics: Physical straits directly involved in reproduction, such as the genitalia.

Secondary sexual characteristics: Physical traits not directly involved in reproduction, but is indicative of sex, such as enlarged breasts in females and deeper voices in male.
Pubarche
The beginning of puberty marked by the first growth of pubic hair.
Thelarche
The beginning of breast development at the onset of puberty.
Menarche
The beginning of the menstrual function; especially the first menstrual period of an individual.
Spermarche
The start of sperm development in boys at puberty.
Frontal lobe
Part of the cerebrum that is situated at the top front part of each hemisphere and controls voluntary muscle movements and higher level cognitive functions (planning, goal setting, decision-making).
Parietal lobe
Plays a role in interpreting sensory information. Making individuals aware of their limbs is a major responsibility of the parietal lobe. Non-verbal language is processed in this region as well.
Temporal lobe
Part of the cerebrum that is situated on the sides of each hemisphere and is responsible for auditory processing. The left temporal lobe is especially important in language processing.
Corpus callosum
A network of fibers that connect the right and left cerebral hemispheres of the brain. Its maturation from early childhood through adolescence contributes to coordination and integration of information and aides in the development of consciousness.
Behavioral changes that happen in puberty
Moodiness, conflict with parents, negative affect, and risky behaviors such as violating norms and recklessness.

More mood disruptions, more feelings of self-consciousness and embarrassment, more extremes of emotion, and less happiness than younger children or adults.
The role of early or late maturation and susceptibility to depression
-Early maturers are more affected by hormonal influences.
-Girls must deal with more stressors than boys
-Decline in self-esteem (more for girls than boys)
-Body image plays a large role in girls' self-esteem
-Girls experience stress due to their sexuality and the double standard by which they are judged.
-More mixed-group associations which may be less affirming for girls than boys.
-Steady or frequent daters with higher sexual activity are more prone to depression.
-Girls utilize a coping style of rumination which also increases the risk of depression.
Summarize the emergence of sexuality and sexual development
Sexual pleasure is part of human functioning even in early childhood. On average, children begin to show sexual attraction at adrenarche - when the adrenal glands increase their activity just before puberty, at about age 10.

The strength and urgency of the adult sex drive, emerging as a function of puberty, is a new experience to young adolescents. Faced with their increased sexual interest, most adolescents begin to explore their sexuality.
Cognitive development in regards to formal operational thought
Challenging even for adults

Easier to apply in domains of expertise

Use of logic and abstract thinking
Cognitive development in regards to scientific problem solving
Generate and consider possible solutions; able to grasp the "hypothetical" concept
Cognitive development in regards to constructing ideals
Adolescent egocentrism may contribute to critical attitude
toward anything less than perfect.
Cognitive development in regards to metacognition
- Improved capacity to think about own thinking
- Self-focus related to need to form adult identity.
Imaginary audience
Because adolescents are so sure others are as interested in them as they are, they can become extremely self-conscious.
Personal fable
Another feature of the adolescent's self-focus is the distorted view of their own importance.
Invincibility fable
A feeling of being invulnerable, even immortal, can be part of this fantasy, perhaps contributing to increases in risk taking at adolescence.
Describe identity development and changes in adolescents
Ego Identity, as Erikson first called it, serves as the foundation for the behavioral, effective and cognitive commitments to career, relationships and political and religious belief systems that will be made in adulthood.
Identify Marcia's four identity status categories
Diffusion
Moratorium
Foreclosure
Achievement

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-JrZwmHU9xE
Diffusion
Where adolescents embark on identity development process; no commitments or life choices; high incident of risk taking
Moratorium
Moving toward future; "what makes me, me";
frequently shifting goals & behaviors - start constructing identity
Foreclosure
Make commitments without exploring alternatives; conferred identity (I believe what my parents told me to believe)
Achievement
Constructed own identity; internal locus of control; positive psychological well-being
Distinguish identity development among diverse groups and genders
More similarities than differences

Women more likely to assign interpersonal aspects of identity a higher priority
Distinguish identity development among racial and ethnic identity theories
Race or ethnicity not yet a salient feature of self-concept in childhood (starts off in moratorium-like stage), but can take on personal significance in adolescence as triggered by experience.

One consensus: A strong and positive ethnic identity serves as a powerful protective factor
Frameworklessness
Body changing in appearance, emerging adult sexual needs, hormonal shifts, expanding capacity to reflect on the future and the self, and increased maturity demands.
Frameworklessness; Describe the role of the peer arena in developing identity
-Trying to separate from the identity of their parents and lean on their peers.
-Adolescents shared sense of stability makes the peer group a likely target of affiliation.
Identify and define 3 parts of a social network
1. A few close friends
2. cliques
3. crowds
Differentiate between peer selection and peer influence
-Adolescents will spend most of their time with their few close friends as they are part of their innermost circle.
-Adolescents take part in groups based on similar interests not necessarily as close friendships.
Describe the role of parenting in adolescence
○ The role of parenting is important but conflicts with the adolescents' sense of identifying one's self.
○ It is important for parents to teach their adolescent moral issues. Although, when their adolescent thinks the parent is setting strict rules on issues they think are personal, that is when the struggle starts.
How crowd affiliations can mitigate parenting effects
If parents are encouraging a child to achieve in school, then the child is more likely to migrate towards other students working toward the same goals.
Explain the role school has in adolescent development
-Major part in the psychosocial, intellectual, and vocational development of adolescents
-Nurturing teachers have students that show greater academic effort and express more prosocial goals.
-Large school size is correlated with lower scores on standardized test scores and higher dropout rates
-Smaller schools promote prosocial behavior among teens and more community activism among their adult graduates
-Negative feedback or criticism from teachers was found to be clearly associated with diminished motivation and poor achievement.
Discuss the role work and leisure has in adolescent development, including working-for-pay's mixed benefits
-Leisure activities can promote skill mastery, such as sports participation, hobbies, and can also be recreational (video games).
-High school participation in either prosocial activities or sports was associated w/ long term educational achievements

Pros of working
-Kids who participated in prosocial activities were unlikely to use alcohol or other drugs in high school, those who participated in sports were more likely than most other teens to use alcohol in high school
-Adult responsibilities might help adolescents feel independent and grown up, enhancing self-esteem
-Teens who work generally endorse many presumed benefits (learning to manage money and time, establishing work ethic, and learning social skills)

Cons of working
-Teens report feeling fatigued and having less time for homework and leisure activities
-More than 20 hours a week are associated with increases in problem behaviors like theft, school misconduct, alcohol and drug use, including cigarette smoking
Summarize the role media and the consumer culture take in adolescent development
-Study shows that total daily media consumption was 7 hours and 38 minutes in 2009
-Media usage takes up even more time than work
-General loss of community and a focus on individualism and material success
-Link between viewing TV violence and behaving aggressively for certain individuals has been well researched and is generally accepted
-Frequent consumption of media is linked to more sexual partners and earlier sexual initiation
-Media images serve as standards for social comparison, molding expectations for normative behavior and amplifying values that may be at odds with those of families and communities.
Define risky behaviors
Behaviors that constitute a departure from socially accepted norms or behaviors that pose a threat to the well-being of individuals or groups
List the reasons adolescents engage in risky behaviors
-Adolescents tend to score higher than other age groups on a dimension called sensation seeking
-Adolescent egocentrism supports the fiction that risky behavior is exciting, but not potentially catastrophic
-The influence of peers. Peers provide not only role models for deviancy, but a kind of collective egocentrism
Describe the paradox of risk-taking behaviors
Risky behavior is instrumental in relieving the maturity gap that afflicts those adolescents caught between physical and social maturity.

Adolescents experience a decrease in positive self-concept but an increase in peer acceptance.
Explain society's role in adolescent problem behavior both presently and historically, including differentiating between broad and narrow socialization
Then: In the 1920s, society viewed deviant adolescent behavior as an expression of youthful energies gone awry. Social deviancy was considered an alternative pathway that some teenagers used to meet normal developmental goals. It was believed that society was responsible for providing more productive outlets for adolescent energies.

Now: Contemporary society leans toward perceiving the source of deviancy as something within the individual adolescent
Review the social worker's role in uncovering the personal meaning of risk and helping adolescents reflect on their behaviors
-Consider the personal motivation that drives the adolescent, in order to uncover the personal meaning of risky behavior for the individual.
-Do not assume mature perspective-taking from the adolescent.
-Real empathy is important for a successful therapeutic relationship.
-Be aware of own perspective and differentiate it from that of the adolescent, in order to effectively reason with adolescent.
-Help adolescents become more reflective.
Explain what it means to say, "It takes a village" in regards to adolescents
○ Successful negotiation of the adolescent period depends upon the interaction of a number of variables:
■ Biology or genetics
■ Social environment
■ Perceptions
■ Personality and behavior

○ Transforming the social world of adolescents into a healthier place takes a team effort consisting of: Family, Peers, Schools, Neighborhoods
Define marker events
Something that, upon looking backward, changes the course of one's life
Examples of marker events
completing formal education,
entering the adult workforce,
leaving the family home,
getting married and
becoming a parent.
Define Emerging adulthood
Roughly between the ages of 18 and 30, all biological systems reach peak potential
Significant things happening during Emerging adulthood
Work is postponed, marriage and childbearing are likely to be delayed, and self-exploration continues
Discuss the protective and risk factors for peak physical health during young adulthood
Healthy lifestyles include getting regular exercise, eating a healthy diet, and avoiding unhealthy behaviors such as smoking and drug use. Such behaviors in young adulthood are reflected in poorer health later
Advances in the brain and abilities during young adulthood
The pruning of synapses continues.

Frontal lobes continue to mature, advancing abilities in organization, attention, planning, and self-regulation
Define postformal or fifth-stage thinking
Believed to be more flexible, logical, willing to accept moral and intellectual complexities, and dialectical than previous stages in development.
Describe Perry's theory about postformal thought
Theory examines the changes that occur over time in the structure of young adults' knowledge, or the changes in their expectations and assumptions about the world.
Describe Kitchener's theory about postformal thought
Model of the Development of Reflective Judgment projects that there is neither one acceptable solution nor one agreed-on way to solve it
Explain advances in logical thinking
The post formal thinker can understand the logic of each of the contradictory perspectives and integrate the perspectives into a larger whole.
Summarize Schaie's View of Adults Adjusting to Environmental Pressures
He argues that at different times of adult life people face different kinds of problems, and different skills are brought to bear on those problems.
Causes of procrastination
Procrastinators share low levels of trait conscientiousness rendering this group more likely to be disorganized, poor at planning and lacking the self-regulation needed to accomplish things in a timely way.
Types of procrastination
Those with low levels of conscientiousness and high levels of neuroticism tend to be fearful, anxiety-prone and perfectionist;

Those whose combination of personality traits includes low conscientiousness, low neuroticism, and high extraversion are more likely to procrastinate without the worry.

"Rebellious" procrastinaters who resist authority and assert independence through procrastination
Ways to help decrease procrastination
Behavioral approaches such as instruction in time management and organizational skills;

Other approaches blend behavioral elements with specific components that address underlying psychological needs;

For perfectionistic procrastinators, helpers may find stress-management interventions such as guided relaxation training and systematic desensitization procedures as helpful therapies
Depression as a symptom
may present as a sad mood
Depression as a syndrome
may present as a sad mood plus anxiety
Major Depressive Disorder and its varied presentations
Unipolar- feelings of sadness, frustration, loss, or anger interfere with everyday life for weeks or months at a time.

Dysthymic- individuals experience no joy, gloomy and may complain a lot

Cyclothymic- emotional ups and downs but not as severe as bipolar

Bipolar- feeling of sadness, frustration etc. followed by a period of euphoria, abnormal excitement, or elevated mood (manic).
The core features for Major Depressive Disorder
Sad affect
Anhedonia-lack of pleasure or interests
Fluctuations in weight
Fluctuation in sleep
Psychomotor changes
Fatigue
Cognitive impairments
Feeling of guilt or worthlessness
Suicidal thoughts or act

5 of these symptoms must be present for a minimum of 2 weeks and impair normal functioning
List some of the different things theorists such as Freud & Erickson believe young adults need to be happy
Freud: Believes young people need love and work. Work helps justify our existence in society and provides satisfaction

Erikson: Intimacy and generativity are what young adults need to enrich their lives.
Describe different adult attachment theories as well as research traditions in adult attachment
-The nuclear family tradition, exploring how early attachments affect caregiving of own children
- The peer/romantic relationship tradition, focusing on peer attachments in adulthood
Explain the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI)
The purpose of it is to measure the attachment representation of adults via their early caregivers
How is AAI scored
Truthfulness as supported by evidence, succinctness, relevance to the topic, clarity, and organization of responses.

Additional scoring criteria include coder's assessment of interviewee's early attachment quality as well as an assessment of language used in the interview (angry, passive, derogating)
Four categories and three sub-categories of AAI
Secure/Autonomous
Preoccupied
Dismissing
Unresolved/Fearful/Cannot classify
Discuss features of adult-pair bonds, including defining an attachment system
Adult Pair-Bonds integrate 3 basic behavioral systems that support attachment including caregiving, attachment and sexual mating.

Attachment System is comprised of proximity maintenance, separation distress, and treatment of the caregiver as both a safe haven and a secure base
Describe how attachment moves from parents to peers, and explain the behavioral systems involved
As children get older behaviors towards peers take on some attachment functions. Needs for intimacy and support are often met within the peer group.
Summarize Sternberg's 3 Elements of Love
Intimacy component: feelings of closeness and attachment

Passion component: physical arousal or emotional stimulation

Decision/commitment component: conscious decision to stick with one another
Summarize Bartholomew's Four-Category Typology
Secure individuals have internalized a positive sense of self along with positive models of other. They expect to be available and supportive of their needs in close relationships. Comfortable with emotional closeness but still autonomous.

Preoccupied individuals have positive models of others but negative models of themselves. Preoccupied individual feels less worthy of the other person's value. Emotional demandingness and anxiety are prevalent.

Avoidant is subdivided into two.
-- Dismissing individuals are positive model of self but negative model of other. Denying need for close relationships allows for sense of superiority. Self-sufficiency is preferred.
--Fearful is product of negative models of self and others. Attachments are desirable but seen as out of reach. Fear of rejection and distress around attachment. Ultimately withdraw
Review the research on dyadic relationships in regard to partner selection; intimacy, satisfaction, and stability of relationships; and communication
Partner selection
- Secure individuals often pair with secure partners
- Anxious and avoidant individuals tend to pair up
- Anxious-anxious and avoidant-avoidant pairs uncommon
- Causes of pairings is unclear; may enter with these styles, or evolve them within relationship

- Secure partners more positive, less negative
- Avoidant partners tend to provide less comfort
- Anxious partners more controlling and intrusive
- Differ in conflict and communication styles
Describe Holland's Theory of Personality-Environment Type
Typical and preferred style or approach to dealing with social and environmental tasks usually developed by early adulthood

Six modal orientations:
o Realistic
o Investigative
o Artistic
o Social
o Enterprising
o Conventional
Describe Super's Developmental Approach
o GROWTH STAGE (up to age 14): children developing parts of their identity such as interests, attitudes, skills, and needs

o EXPLORATORY STAGE (15-25):
§ CRYSTALIZATION: vocational goals are developed
§ SPECIFICATION: more specific vocational preferences are identified
§ IMPLEMENTATION: completion of education and entry into full-time employment.

o ESTABLISHMENT STAGE (25-45): work experiences provides opportunity to match vocation self-concept with job settings. Job sometimes re-evaluated or switching leading to

o MAINTENANCE STAGE (45-65): individual makes further refinements to improve work situation and often advances in status/seniority. If not, then this stage could be stressful

o DECLINE/DISENGAGEMENT STAGE (65+): career coming to a close and planning for retirement
Identify factors important in work and variables that impact career choices
Other job factors are as important as compatibility
- Quality of interactions with others on the job
- Participation in decision making
- Opportunities for advancement
- Geographic location
- Good pay
- College experience vs. "the forgotten half"
- Social class, ethnicity, race, and gender
Review the importance of industry and Erikson's and Bandura's theories about industry
Self-concept and self-understanding are central features in theories of career development

• Erikson's industry theory: Our belief in our ability to work productively, and expectation of work satisfaction

• Bandura's self-efficacy theory: Our beliefs about our ability to exercise control over events in our lives
Studies on mastery orientation versus helpless patterns
- Incremental vs. entity beliefs
- Shapes effort, understanding of success or failure
- Stereotype threat may impact performance, can be influenced by mastery beliefs
Discuss the importance of generativity as well as its two main components
Erikson's concept of generativity:
- Being motivated to leave a legacy for the next generation
- Increasingly important in adulthood

1. Desire: Expressing goals,
2. Accomplishment: Achieving these goals
Describe the ways attachment theory is applicable to therapy
- Therapist-client relationship can act as a platform to establish client's attachment personality and therapist can cue corrective experience to promote more secure attachment for client in relationships

- Therapeutic issues such as loss, separation, response to stress, feelings of connectedness to others, and relationship problems can best be approached through attachment theory by focusing on the clients problems and relationships in early childhood in hopes of offering some insight.
List ways counselors can help develop self-efficacy in clients
- Listen to why the client will try or won't try certain things and what they think their roadblocks to success are.
- Discuss or provide models who demonstrate success in an area of difficulty for a client.
- Challenge a clients erroneous beliefs about lack of ability
- Attempt to reduce coexisting factors that lower self-efficacy such as stress, depression, or features of the environment like restricted opportunity
Describe the different aspects lifespan developmental theory should include
Development requires multidimensional models
- Both hereditary and environmental influences
- Both continuity and change characterize adults
- Adaptation continues from birth to death
Explain the three global processes involved in adaptation to change
- Growth: Adding new characteristics, understandings, skills
- Maintenance or resilience: Finding ways to continue or restore functioning after loss
- Regulation of loss: Adjusting expectations and accepting a lower level of functioning
Identify the Big 5 Personality traits as well as biological and environmental influences
1. Neuroticism,
2. extraversion,
3. agreeableness,
4. conscientiousness,
5. openness to experience

Biological causes
- Related to brain-mediated systems of approach, fear,
irritability, effortful control, and reactivity
- Stable differences in reactivity, stress response

Environmental influences equally important
- Predictable responses from others
- Relatively stable environments for many
Differentiate between age-graded and history-graded changes
Age-graded change = change as a function of time
•Physical changes
•Cognitive changes
•Life tasks and responsibilities

History-graded changes are those that affect the development of a whole cohort
- Examples include The Great Depression, WWII, the
Vietnam War, social changes in 1960s, 9-11
Discuss the physical and cognitive changes in adulthood
Physical changes in adulthood
- Declines in sensory ability, reproductive ability
- Changes in appearance (wrinkles, weight)

Cognitive changes in adulthood
- Decline in fluid/mechanical processes, processing speed and inhibition mechanisms
- Stable or increasing crystallized resources, declarative and procedural knowledge
Define fluid intelligence (mechanics)
Basic operational characteristics that seem to directly reflect how well the "hardware" of the nervous system is working.

It's functions include such things as processing speed and inhibitory mechanisms.
Define crystallized intelligence (pragmatics)
The compilation of skills and information we have acquired in the course of our lives that can be viewed as the software programs of our nervous system.
Discuss the roles of chronological age, family-related roles, & membership in a birth cohort
Development is influenced by the intersection of
- Chronological age (life time)
- Family-related roles (family time)
- Membership in a birth cohort (historical time)

Year of birth marks entry into a cohort of peers
Define social gradient
Economic, social status alters impact of events
Define nonnormative events, summarize their potential role in development
These events are sudden, unexpected, and individual
- Not predicted by age, not relevant to everyone
- Create a new set of circumstances
- Have potential to alter course of development

Example of a negative nonnormative event:
- Traumatic illnesses, accidents, imprisonment or death
of a loved one

Example of a positive nonnormative event:
- Geographic move for a job promotion, major career
change, economic windfall
Review the concept of generativity
A primary developmental task of middle adulthood
•Two components:
- Desire refers to wanting to be creative, productive, or giving
- Accomplishment means actually feeling that you are creative, productive, or giving

- Desire more characteristic of young adults
- Accomplishment more typical of middle adults
Review the concept of intimacy; discuss the impact of intimacy in midlife
Good marriages or primary relationships (intimacy) confer important physical and psychological benefits
• Higher levels of happiness
• Higher sexual and emotional satisfaction
• Lower rates of mental illness, drug and alcohol abuse and physical illness
• Economic benefits and protective factors
• Tendency to live longer
Describe the family life cycle
Normative stagelike sequence of roles and experiences
- Leaving home as single young adults
- Finding a compatible mate
- Joining of families through marriage
- Families with young children
- Families with adolescents
- Launching children and moving on
- Families in later life
Review theories of marital harmony/discord, including multidimensional models of success
- Disillusionment model: Romantic notions dashed
- Maintenance hypothesis: Romantic couples work to maintain illusions and therefore marriage
- Social exchange/behavioral theories: Marriage fails when problems become overwhelming, or because of inadequate coping
- Intrapersonal models: Attachment and temperament explain marital success or failure

- Intrapersonal factors: Traits, expectations
- Interpersonal factors: Problem-solving skills
- Situational factors: Stress, environment
- Developmental factors: Transitions, role change
Predictors of marital success or failure
More successful when positive outweighs negative
- Negative affect reciprocity predicts dissolution
- "Four horsemen of the apocalypse" are criticism, defensiveness, contempt, and stonewalling
Describe the generative process of child rearing, including sources of stress and predictors of how a parent will face a challenge
- Parents report both intense new stresses and delightful new pleasures
- Each stage of a child's life presents new challenges for parents

Meeting parenting challenges depends on
- Age and stage of life
- Personality and coping skills
- Socioeconomic status
- Available support systems
Define the different parenting stages and the important events that happen at each stage
- Newborn period and infancy: First-time parents often distressed and overwhelmed
- Toddler, preschool: Parents begin to discipline child, must provide continuous supervision
- Middle childhood: Calmer period, but with plenty of challenges, new outside factors of peers, teachers
- Adolescence: Parenting usually becomes more difficult, increases in conflict and worry
- Launching period: Emerging adult children begin to move away and become more self-sufficient
- Kinkeeping period: Maintaining extended family connections, may be caring for elder and younger
Identify the steps to teaching how to maintain relational well-being
1. Calm down
2. Speak nondefensively
3. Validate partners and what they're going through
4. Overlearn, practice behaviors of self-soothing, nondefensive listening and validating
5. Pay attention to the little things, cultivate positive affect in daily interactions
Define PTSD
Experiencing, witnessing, or being confronted with an event so traumatizing that it results in symptoms of re-experiencing, hyperarousal, and avoidance
Risk factors of PTSD
- Biological vulnerability, stress response
- Psychological vulnerability, history of trauma
- Difficulties in executive functions prior to trauma
5 features of treatment of PTSD
1. Addressing safety
2. Calming by addressing pressing practical needs
3. Supporting self and collective efficacy
4. Bolstering connectedness among survivors
5. Instilling hope
Differentiate between happiness and subjective well-being (SWB); know the elements of SWB
•Subjective well-being (SWB) is frequently used synonymously with happiness
-Includes cognitive and affective elements
• Overall life satisfaction
• Frequency of positive and negative moods
How is SWB measured
-Measured using interviews or questionnaires
Explain the correlation between happiness and income, as well as the caveats involved
•Once basic needs are met, greater wealth is not strongly related to happiness
- Rising income appears to make people happier ONLY if a number of other conditions are met

•Increasing income has a positive effect if it increases actual purchasing power

•When average national household income increases, average well-being increases

•No increase in well-being if only wealthiest citizens experience income gains
Summarize the "American paradox" as well as possible explanations
As standards of living have increased steadily, so have emotional problems like depression, anxiety

•Proposed explanations
- Pursuit of material gain puts people on an unsatisfying "hedonic treadmill"
- Affluence reduces the need for support from others, limits connections with family and friends
- Wealth provides control but fails to create a "perfect" life, the mismatch fosters depression
Identify internal factors that may explain life satisfaction
•Personality traits strongly correlated with SWB
- Extroverts are happier than introverts
- Neuroticism negatively correlated with happiness
- Conscientiousness positively correlated with SWB
Define expectations and neuroticism
- Expectations may moderate impact

- Neuroticism linked to active social comparison, exaggerating perception of deficiency
Describe the role social relationships have on well-being
Having friends, confidants, and marriage partners all linked to well-being

• Both giving and receiving are important
- Receiving social support linked to better coping
- Giving social support linked to greater happiness
Explain the idea of reciprocal mutual influence
- Happier people create better social relationships
- Better social relationships create more happiness
Review how generativity, congruence, and workplace conditions influence happiness and well-being
People who feel generative report more well-being
- Making progress toward goals, work and non-work
- Having opportunities to exercise skills

Congruence between personality and the skills and qualities required by a job makes work satisfying

Workplace conditions:
- Opportunities for personal control
- Variety of tasks
- Support of supervisor
- Good coworker relationships and interaction
- Good pay and benefits
- Respect and status
Define and differentiate between eudaemonic and hedonic well-being and list universal psychological needs
Eudaemonic: Psychological well-being (sense of purpose, growth and mastery)
Hedonic: Subjective well-being (Frequency of positive and negative moods)

•People have universal psychological needs that must be met to feel satisfied with life
- Autonomy
- Competence
- Relatedness
Explain the importance of meaning and Baumeister's theory about understanding our lives
Baumeister argued we have a need to understand our lives, see them as making sense/having meaning
4 reasons people seek meaning
- Having a purpose for life helps us set goals
- Meaning provides a sense of control, autonomy
- Meaning helps identify values, morals, and ethics by defining actions that are legitimate or not
- Meaning helps people value themselves, fosters self-worth
Describe the role of spirituality and religion in well-being, differentiate between religion & spirituality, and distinguish between global meaning and situational meaning
Majority say religion is important part of their lives

Researchers distinguish spirituality and religion
- May have spiritual striving without religious practice
- Two aspects are closely allied for many people

Religious traditions institutionalize meaning systems
- Help establish global and situational meaning

• Global meaning: Sense of meaning and purpose of the universe and of human kind
• Situational meaning: Sense one's own life has meaning and purpose
List the cultural influences on well-being
- Money
- Personality
- Relationships
- Work
- Achievement
- Psychological needs
- Meaning and religion
List what cross-cultural research has shown as well as special issues associated with cross-cultural research
•Cross-cultural research offers an opportunity to examine the relative influence of the cultural influences on well-being

- Different definitions of happiness
- Some Eastern cultures prize peaceful calm
- Many Western cultures prize elation, excitement
•Factors central to satisfaction vary
- Self-esteem central in individualist cultures
- Social relationships central in collectivist cultures
•Wide differences in income do not necessarily lead to wide differences in levels of well-being
•Conditions of poverty create similar levels of misery in both rich and poor countries

•Cross-cultural research is challenging and should be interpreted with care
List the stressors that occur in mid-life
- Awareness of limited time left to live
- Accumulated losses related to aging
- Role strain of increased responsibilities and obligations to family and work
List the protective factors that lead to resilience in mid-life
- Childhood factors (e.g., educated parents)
- Social attachments (e.g., confidants, spouse)
- Stable employment
- Positive social comparisons
Identify the two types of stress
- Discrete life events
- Chronic daily hassles
Explain allostatic load and stress
- Wear and tear on the body which grows over time when the individual is exposed to repeated or chronic stress
- May lead to psychological and physical symptoms
- Kindling-behavioral sensitization
Review diatheses-stress models
- Specific vulnerabilities (diatheses) of individuals explain why more sensitive to stress than others
- May be genetically based or acquired
Explain how stress affects the body and mind
• Stressors engage the autonomic nervous system
- Mobilize energy resources for fight or flight

• Immune system also requires energy, competing for limited resources
- Chronic stress dysregulates immune functions
- Immunosuppression, maladaptive inflammation
Describe the different binary models of coping as well as their limits
- Efforts aimed at changing the situation (problem-focused, problem-solving)
- Efforts directed toward emotion management (emotion-focused, tension-reduction)

•These models fail to capture the true nature of coping
- All coping involves cognitive and emotional aspects
- Selection of coping response often related to values, beliefs, attitudes, cultural framework
Summarize the Conservation of Resources Theory
•Individuals act in ways that conserve resources
- When stressed, people seek to minimize costs
- Seek to increase resources in nonstressful times
Discuss wellness, how it is achieved
• Among ways of conserving or rebuilding resources is to cultivate self-efficacy, mastery, and control
- Promoting positive affectivity can buffer impact of stress on the body
Define the affectivity connection
- Cultivating healthy mental habits can serve as one antidote to reactivity
- Practice of mindfulness meditation and positive emotions promotes health, immune and cardiovascular functioning, reduce pain perception
Describe the physical changes that take place in late adulthood
• Immune function declines, chronic illness climbs

• Muscular and skeletal changes common
- Osteoarthritis brings aches and pains

• Sensory deficits
- Common, often debilitating visual changes
- Hearing loss
- Decreased taste and smell
- Less sensitive to touch
Summarize the brain and cognitive changes that take place in late adulthood
- Vascular problems and atrophy affect frontal lobes
- Executive functions show earliest decline
- Fluid intelligence, processing efficiency, declines
- Crystallized intelligence declines modestly after 70
Define autobiographical memory
Memory of one's own life
Define terminal drop
Decline in intellectual functioning as one nears the end of their life, more precipitous
Define terminal decline
Decline in intellectual functioning as one nears the end of their life, gradual
Define recency
The more that time passes the more the strength of the memory fades
Explain the causes and influences of dementia
Cardiovascular accidents, or disease process such as Alzheimer's disease
Stages through which dementia progresses
- Prodromal period (1 or 2 years), when symptoms do not reach a clinical threshold
- Middle stage (2nd to 4th-5th year), more memory difficulty, wandering, decreasing self-care
- Later stages (5th year and beyond), severe memory and language problems, extreme disorientation, poor physical coordination
Review stereotypes and negative beliefs that can affect those in late adulthood
Social losses exacerbated by negative stereotypes
- slow thinking, incompetent, feeble, sad, lonely

•Negative beliefs can lead to discriminatory or demeaning practices
Identify what is meant by the shrinking social convoy, including sources of loss and how it may affect adults
Shrinking social network

•Illness and death not the only sources of loss
- Loss of social roles in retirement
- Limited finances constrain travel, socializing
- Adult children may be geographically distant
- May leave neighbors in move to smaller home, adult community, or assisted living
- Age-segregation increases with poor health

May lead to feeling less valued and useful to others
Express the three processes key to adjustment and how they combine
- Selection: Narrowing goals and limiting domains in which we expend effort
- Optimization: Finding ways to enhance achievement of remaining goals
- Compensation: Finding new means to achieve ends

•Combined: Selective optimization with compensation
Differentiate between primary control and secondary control
Primary control: control efforts that are attempts to affect the immediate environment, beyond ourselves

Secondary control: control efforts that are attempts to change ourselves
Define wisdom
Expertise in the fundamental pragmatics of life
Components of wisdom
• Involves superior knowledge, judgment, regulation
- More than cognitive skill, includes motivation, emotional regulation, tolerance for ambiguity
- Somewhat more typical of older adults
- May be more individual than age-related
Cultural variation in views of wisdom
- Western views tend to emphasize cognitive aspects of wisdom, breadth of knowledge, ability to analyze
- Eastern views more expansive, incorporate both cognition and affect
- Similarity across cultures greater than distinctions
Max Plank Institute Criteria
Researchers posited five criteria for a wise person
1. Deep fund of factual knowledge about life, human nature, relationships with others
2. Well-developed procedural knowledge about how to deal with life and its conflicts
3. Ability to consider life's challenges from multiple perspectives
4. Ability to work toward decisions that balance one's own and others' interests
5. Understanding true certainty is impossible for life's ill-defined problems and coming to peaceful terms with uncertainty
Explain how social-emotional experiences are enhanced and better regulated with age
- Older people pay more attention to feelings
- Emotional experience is enhanced and complex
- Experience as much positive emotion as when young
- Less negative emotion, except for sadness
Differentiate between attitudes towards death in young people versus attitudes towards death in late adulthood
Death in later life is somewhat expected. Youth find death particularly traumatic. Elderly individuals report less anxiety about death and are more realistic about its inevitability
Identify the aspects of a good death
- Symptom management and care (freedom from pain, being clean)
- Practical details (knowing what to expect)
- Good patient-professional relationships
- Psychological attributes (dignity, not dying alone)
Identify the aspects of palliative care
Comfort care that involves services provided by caregivers from several disciplines embodying a comprehensive approach to care that addresses pain management, emotional and spiritual care, and psychological support for caregivers and survivors.
Summarize Bowlby's theory about grief and mourning
Four phases
- Shock: Loss is met by disbelief
- Protest: Periods of obsessive yearning, restlessness or irritability
- Despair: Sadness, social withdrawal, sleeping, eating, or somatic disturbances, other symptoms of depression or emotional upset
- Reorganization: Gradually adjust to the loss

•Did not believe that bereaved individuals detach from lost loved ones, rather they discover ways to integrate memory of the deceased into their lives
Summarize Freud's theory about grief and mourning
- Successful resolution of grief defined by detaching emotionally from the former relationship and investing energy in formation of new attachments
- After experiencing enormous personal losses, he later wrote that although acute grief may subside, people may remain inconsolable

•Notion that active grieving is necessary for recovery has permeated canon of grief counseling
Identify prevalent myths about grief
- People need to confront pain of loss in an active way for healing to occur
- Normal grieving is a sequence of stages
- Grief takes a brief, arbitrary period of time to complete, such as 6 months to a year
Describe the different types of integrated perspectives on grief
•Contemporary models of grieving include diverse ways of coping with loss

•Dual-process model depicts interplay of stressors and coping strategies within a flexible framework
- Approach/emotion-focused/loss-focused
- Avoidance/problem-focused/restoration-focused
- Both are part of the grieving process

•Approach-avoidance interplay may protect individuals from the extremes of each
- Individuals go back and forth between modes
- Tends to be more loss-focused early in grieving, more restoration-focused later
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