MUS 115: Exam 2

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Terms in this set (...)

race records
a term that came into use in the early 1920s to describe recordings by African American artists intended for sale primarily in the African American community
Louis Jordan
-first made his mark as a saxophonist in Chick Webb's fine swing band
-formed his own group "___ and his Tympanny Five"
-jump band
- "Choo Choo Ch'Boogie"
-Late 30s thru early 50s. Saxophone, jump blues, jazz, swing/big band
jump blues
-genre that was a more upbeat version of big-band swing
-more emphasis focused on the singer
-1940s
-Up-tempo blues featuring horns
-Precursor to R&B
electric blues
-genre of blues with an electric guitar
-came of age in the 1950s
-Muddy Waters
-rough-edged vocals
-vocal-like responses and solos from the lead guitar or harmonica
-dense texture, with several instruments playing melody-like lines behind the singer
-Distinguished by amplification of guitar, bass, drums, and harmonica
Chicago blues
genre of blues that is like delta blues (acoustic guitar and harmonica), but also has electric guitar, amplified bass guitar, drums, piano, and amplified harmonica

-Urban blues indigenous to Chicago
-Emerged from electric blues
Muddy Waters
-black artist known for electric blues
-Chicago bluesman
-biggest hit: "I'm Your Hoochie Coochie Man" (1954)
"Father of modern Chicago blues." 50s.
T-Bone Walker
Black artist
String instruments, jump blues, 40s.
Doo-wop (gospel roots)
Vocal-based R&B developed in African American communities. Popular in 50s.

a pop oriented R&B genre that typically featured remakes of popular standards or pop-style originals sung by black vocal groups. This died out in the early 1960s with the rise of girl groups and Motown
lead/accompaniment
the art of playing along with an instrumental or vocal soloist or ensemble, often known as the lead

The "Lead" and "Backup"
Swing rhythm
-four beat rhythm
-string bass and guitar marked each beat
-backbeat
-Composed of shuffled eighth notes/repeated pairs of notes/syncopation
triplet
rhythmic pattern that divides each beat into 3 equal parts
cover
New performance or recording of a previously recorded, released song, by
someone other than the original artist.
boogie-woogie
a blues piano style characterized by repetitive bass figures, usually in a shuffle rhythm
8-to-the-bar
-8 beats in a measure, as opposed to 4
-used in boogie-woogie, Motown, R&B
-1941 boogie-woogie album
horn section
A group of musicians playing wind and brass instruments
a cappella
vocal music without musical accompaniment
Rock & Roll
genre that evolved from R&B, started with mostly blacks and southern whites, this music resonated with teens
-Chuck Berry
-Little Richard
-started mid 1950s
-Late 40s/early 50s
-Combo of blues/jazz with western swing/country
-Electric guitar common
Sh'Boom
breakthrough doo-wop hit by The Chords, 1954
rockabilly
-according to Carl Perkins: genre that is a country take on R&B, performed mainly by white southerners, combined elements of country music with rock and roll
-originated at Sam Phillip's Sun Records in Memphis
-Elvis' version of "Mystery Train"
-mid 1950s
Elvis Presley
-"King of Rock and Roll"
-late 1950s/60s
-symbol of rock and roll
"Jailhouse Rock"
Jerry Lee Lewis
-early pioneer of rock and roll
-R&R/country
-nicknamed "The Killer"
-"Great Balls of Fire" biggest hit
-vocals, piano, guitar
-late 50s
Bill Haley
- "Bill Haley and the Comets"
-"Rock Around the Clock" - one of the first big rock and roll hits
-1954
-R&R. Early 50s. vocals/guitar
Sun Records (Sam Phillips)
-American record label founded in 1952
-recording studio in Memphis that was the home of rockabilly
-Elvis recorded here
-many white covers of black music
Bo Diddley
-artist who combined R&B with Latin rhythms (maracas and drums)
-Later 50s, 60s
Chuck Berry
the ultimate architect of rock and roll music
-musician of the 1950s/60s
-guitar
-"Maybelline"
-"Johnny B. Goode" (1958)
Little Richard
architect of rock and roll
-black musician
-"Tutti Fruitti"
-raspy voice
-New Orleans rock and roll
-"Lucille"
-mid/late 1950s
-keyboard/piano
Fats Domino
"Blueberry Hill"
Mid 50s
R&R and R&B
Singer-songwriter
Piano
Buddy Holly
rock and roll artist
"Not Fade Away" (1957)
-most imaginative, creative mind of rock and roll's second generation
-guitar/piano
-Late 50s.
Ritchie Valens
-artist of "La Bamba"
-Chicano rock movement
-R&R. guitar. Late 50s.
"the day the music died"
-February 3, 1959
-plane crash that killed Buddy Holly, Ritchie Valens, and J.P. Richardson
-seemed to be the end to rock and roll
-term is in "American Pie" by Don McLean
Ray Charles
-black artist who pioneered the genre of soul music
-1940s/50s
-"What'd I Say"
-Singer-songwriter, composer.
-Soul, R&B, gospel, blues.
Leiber and Stoller
producing partners
Lyricist and composer
songwriters who crafted a song specifically for the studio recording
-first hit: "Hound Dog"
-first people to make record producing an art
producer
Oversee and manage recordings of an artist's music.
The Coasters
-formed in 1955
-American R&B / R&R vocal group late 50s
-worked with Leiber and Stoller
-topped the charts in 1957
-"Young Blood"
girl groups
-rock genre for women by women
-1960s
-genre about love
-Several young female singers who generally harmonize together
-ex. The Shirelles, The Ronnettes
The Shirelles
female vocal quartet that sang "Will You Love Me Tomorrow"

Early 60s. R&B, soul
Chiffons
one of the most famous girl groups of the early 1960s
The Beach Boys
-most important surf rock band
-early/mid 1960s
-"Surfin USA"
"Dark Ages"
-many people thought that after 1957, rock and roll had simply died and was just a short-lived fad
-rockers were replaced with teen pop idols
-Designation for low point in R&R.
-Retirement of Little Richard, "Day the Music Died," Shame of Jerry Lee Lewis, -Ends with the beginning of the British
invasion
~1959 to 1964
Alan Freed
-American DJ. Mixed blues, R&B, country on the radio.
-would not play white covers of black songs
surf rock
-a regional rock from California notable for its high register close harmony vocals and innovative guitar effects
-new guitar sounds
-Electric guitar & saxophone
-early 1960s
teen pop idols
idols were created for teens to worship- rebellion from parents, this wave of idols occurred after the dark ages of rock and roll
-Frank Sinatra
-Common by end of 40s, "Golden Age" was early 60s.
Paul Anka
-teen pop idol 1957-1958
-Jazz. Doo-wop. Late 50s-60s
-"Diana"
dance fads
Popularized dances from a brief period of time. Emerged in the 50s
EX: the stroll, the twist, mashed potato, monster mash
animal dances
Dance fads with animal names. Emerged in the 60's. (e.g. The Pony, The Dog, the monkey, )
The Twist
1959 pop song - Hank Ballard and the Midnighters. Covered by Chubby
Checker (Le's Twist Again)
Lesley Gore
-an American singer/songwriter/actress, and activist
-"It's My Party" (1963)
-Mid 60s Pop
Ventures
-surf rock band of the 1960s
-"Walk Don't Run"
Goffin and King
-songwriting married couple
-biggest hit in 1960 written for the Shirelles: "Will You Love Me Tomorrow"
folk revival
-movement that began in 1958 with Kingston Trio's recording of "Tom Dooley"
-music became more urban
-activist/political
-Bob Dylan
-Peaked during mid 60s.
-Brought forward musical styles that had contributed to development of country/western, jazz, and R & R.
Kingston Trio
-start of folk revival
-song "Tom Dooley" topped pop charts in 1958
-Helped launch the folk revival. 60s.
Bob Dylan
artist who started as a folksinger, early work was similar to Woodie Guthrie, started to bring in rock elements and people thought he was a traitor
-1960s
-influenced the Beatles
-his lyrics were dense and complex
-folk, rock, blues
-nobel prize in literature 2016
-folk to rock
protest songs
-songs associated with a movement for social change
-Any song that promotes a movement for social change.
-Influenced heavily by
60s counterculture movement
British Invasion
period when many British bands came to the United States
-first wave 1964: Beatles, Rolling Stones, Kinks, Animals, the Dave Clark Five
-Mid 60s, when rock and pop music from UK became popular in US.
The Beatles
-60s. rock, pop
-defining British band of the Rock Revolution, influenced by Bob Dylan
-1962-1970
-expanded music to all genres, different musical styles
-early 60s music: more pop, love songs
-later on, started experimenting with drugs and music became more psychedelic and creative
The Rolling Stones
"world's greatest rock band"
-influenced by blues
-rhythmic groove and dark nasty sound
-incorporated blues into rock
-attitude: sexual, real
The Kinks
British rock band
-influenced by R&B
-1964
-"You Really Got Me"
-Rock, pop. Mid 60s.
Eric Clapton
-Rock, blues. Late 60s-Early 70s
-lead guitarist for Cream
-known for his long improvised guitar solos
Cream
-Psychedelic rock. Late 60s.
-British rock band
-was the first of the Power Trios: lead guitar, bass, drums
-psychedelic rock with blues
-Eric Clapton
Aretha Franklin
"The Queen of Soul"
-1967 (60s)
-"Respect" became anthem for women's movement
-southern soul , gospel, jazz, R&B
James Brown
"The Soul Man"
"Soul Brother #1"
"The Godfather of Soul"
-most important male soul artist of the 1960s
-unique rhythm because of big backup band
-emphasis on rhythm
-"Papa's Got a Brand New Bag"
-R&B. soul. Funk.
soul
term used widely in the 1960s by both black and white Americans to describe popular music by African Americans
-James Brown
-influenced by pop or white rock styles
-Combines gospel, R&B, and jazz.
Jefferson Airplane
first band to spotlight acid rock in San Francisco
-lead singer was a woman Grace Slick
-lyrics are sung slow and trippy
-"White Rabbit" is about Alice in Wonderland
-Psychedelic rock. Late 60s.
Jimi Hendrix
exceptional guitarist of the late 1960s
-used the guitar as the bluesman's "second voice"
-solid-body electric guitar
-morphed blues guitar into rock solo style
-Psychedelic rock. Late 60s.
Grateful Dead
acid rock band with a large cult following, embraced much more than drug culture however
-Late 60s thru 90s.
Janis Joplin
female performer of the San Francisco rock scene
-major substance abuse problem
-performed with Big Brother and the Holding Company
-"rock's original blues diva"
-most prominent rock female in San Francisco besides Grace Slick (Jefferson Airplane)
-passionate, emotional blues singing, not classy, raw sound
-Mid-late 60s. Singer-songwriter. Rock, psychedelic rock (Big Brother and the
Holding Company)
Big Brother and the Holding Company
Janis Joplin began performing with this group in 1965 in San Francisco
-group made a big impact at the 1967 Monterey Pop Festival thanks to Joplin's dynamic stage performance
The Who
English rock band formed in 1964
-energetic, powerhouse band with a heavy bass sound that displayed a strong influence from 1960s R&B
-"My Generation"
-Rock, psychedelic rock.
concept album
album that is unified by a theme
-all songs contribute to a single overall theme or story
-the theme can be instrumental, compositional, narrative, or lyrical
-A rock-era album which represented a unified artistic vision rather than a
compilation of a group or individual's songs
"guitar gods"
Eric Clapton, Jimmie Hendrix, Jeff Beck, Jimmie Page
-the bands that all these people played in were bare bone bands (guitar, bass drums) that highlighted the lead guitarist
-new element of rock was introduced: virtuosic guitar soloing
-Clapton and Hendrix made the electric guitar the solo instrument of rock
Motown
Motown soul: a style of
soul music with a distinct pop influence.
-genre of music that's goal was to give black pop the widest appeal
-created by Berry Gordy Jr. in the 1960s
-all instrumentation contributed to the melody
-emphasized the romance aspect of love
-for the first time, a black style of music was on equal footing with white style music

-American record company founded in 59 in Detroit.
folk-rock
genre that included Bob Dylan
-message and spirit of folk, but with a rock flavor
-Influenced by folk, rock, and pop.
-Early-mid 60s.
-pioneered by the Byrds
acid rock
genre that was the music of the counterculture,
-music had the ability to enhance a drug experience
-ended around 1970
-no musical connections between the bands of this genre, just all had LSD and acid tripping in common
-Form of psychedelic rock characterized by long instrumental solos, few lyrics,
and musical improvisation.
jazz-rock fusion
genre that took rock elements and freed them with jazz
-Miles Davis
-electric instrumentation
-Late 60s. Mixed funk + R&B with rock. Included lengthy improvisation
country-influenced rock
music combining a strong honky-tonk 2 beat with a clear simple rock rhythm
-Roy Orbison "Pretty Woman"
-Subgenre of country music. Formed with fusion of rock and country. Late 60s.
-early 1970s, The Eagles "Take It Easy"
power trio
type of rock band that only has guitar, bass, and drums
ex. Cream
-R&R band format having a guitar, bass, and drums.
-Rose in the 60s.
-Jimi Hendrix
experience.
Led Zeppelin
English rock band
-late 60s through 70s
-classified as heavy metal/hard rock, but their music transcended any single music genre
-heavy guitar-driven blues rock
-"Stairway To Heaven"
-hard rock, heavy metal
studio recording
Steeley Dan is an example of a group who perfected this, their engineers won Grammys for this
-recorded in studio
Latin rock
genre that Santana perfected in 1969
-connected Afro-Cuban music with rock
-clave-like rhythm with rock based guitar
-Rock with Latin influence, sometimes Spanish lyrics.
-As Latin dance became popular in the 50s and 60s, so did this.
The Supremes
-most popular female vocal group of the 1960s
-Female singing group. Premier act of Motown Records during 60s.
-R&B, soul.
-Diana Ross
Poco
southern California country rock band
Pickin up the Pieces
The Temptations
-male Motown group of the 1960s
-R&B, Soul. Success at Motown Records during 60s and 70s.
-"My Girl"
Four Tops
Motown group
"Reach Out (I'll be There)"
Sly and the Family Stone
band that played a key role in the transition from soul to funk
-preached integration
-American rock, funk, and soul band. Late 60s thru early 80s.
-First to have
integrated multi-gender lineup.
Byrds
Los Angeles based group that helped create folk rock
-June 1965 their cover of "Mr. Tambourine Man" topped the charts
-Late 60s. Initially pioneered Folk rock. -Moved on to acid rock and country rock.
The Doors
American rock band formed in 1965
-Acid Rock. Late 60s
-Jim Morrison
"Light My Fire"
Santana
performer who was basically the creator of Latin rock in 1969
-Fusion of Rock and Latin American music.
-Late 60s-Early 70s.
-combined Afro-Cuban music with rock
-clave rhythm
-guitarist
Pink Floyd
English rock band
-psychedelic rock
-each person in the band contributed his own part and made a mixture of work
George Martin
the producer of the Beatles who used multi-track recording and craftsmanship to enrich their songs with unprecedented combinations of instruments and other elements such as crowd noises
Berry Gordy Jr.
person who created the genre of Motown in the 1960s
Sister Rosetta Tharpe
African-American gospel singer and guitar virtuoso
-Gospel, jazz, blues, rock, rhythm and blues
-attained popularity in the 1930s and 1940s with her gospel recordings
-spiritual lyrics & rhythm