Election of 1824
No one won a majority of electoral votes, so the House of Representatives had to decide among Adams, Jackson, and Clay. Clay dropped out and urged his supporters in the House to throw their votes behind Adams. Jackson and his followers were furious and accused Adams and Clay of a "corrupt bargain."
Election of 1828
Was not focused on issues but the personalities of the candidates, the first election under the second party system and a big leap in voters. Adams (Nat. Republican) vs. Jackson (Democrats)- wins the election easily with Calhoun as vp.
Election of 1832
Main issue was Jackson's determination to kill the national bank. Henry Clay (Nat. Republican) vs. Jackson (Dem.)- won easily
Spoils System
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
Kitchen Cabinet
Jackson's group of unofficial advisors consisting of newspaper editors and Democratic leaders that met to discuss current issues. Jackson used the Kitchen Cabinet more than his official Cabinet.
Nicholas Biddle
President of the Second Bank of the United States; had a tight money policy; he struggled to keep the bank functioning when President Jackson tried to destroy it.
National Bank
Had more money than anyone else, it loaned money to other banks, paper money was backed by specie (this limited loans), it had a tight money policy (leads to resentment from other bankers) and it was resented b/c it had foreign investors. Jackson believed that it was unconstitutional, he wanted to kill the bank. Nat. Republicans wanted to expand the bank -> make Jackson veto it -> which they thought would make him hated by the public (stupid, b/c the public resented the bank)
Roger Taney
chief justice of the supreme court who wrote an opinion in the 1857 Dred Scott case that declared the Missouri compromise unconstitutional. He participated in the Bank War by doing Jackson's bidding and placing federal money in pet banks
pet banks
State banks where Andrew Jackson placed deposits removed from the federal National Bank in an effort to destroy the bank.
Webster-Hayne Debate
A series of unplanned debates between Senator Daniel Webster of Massachusetts and Senator Robert Y. Hayne of South Carolina that took place on January 19-27, 1830 regarding protectionist tariffs.
John Calhoun
a democrat (Jackson's VP), who resigned VP, tried to get nullification of tariff going in SC and then became a Whig -> all because he hated Jackson (stemmed from the Eaton affair)
Eaton Affair
John Eaton, Secretary of War, was rumored to have had an affair with Peggy Timberlake, whom he later married, before her husband died in 1828. She was snubbed by the wives of Jackson's cabinet (led by Calhoun's wife). The President wanted to help her because his wife had been the object of similar rumors. This turned Jackson against Calhoun, drew Van Buren and Jackson closer together and dissolved the Cabinet. Calhoun resigned the vice presidency the next year and entered the Senate for South Carolina.
a tribe that was moved from their lands in MS to west of the Arkansas Terr., under Jackson's indian removal policy
Cherokee Nation vs. Georgia
1831. Cherokee sued Georgia because the state had declared all Cherokee laws void. Marshall and the Supreme Court ruled that Cherokees could not sue because they were not a foreign nation nor real citizens.
Worchester vs. Georgia
(1832) Marshall and the Supreme Court rule that could not control the Cherokee or their territory. Completely disregarded by Jackson
Trail of Tears
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Denmark Vesey
freed slave and insurrectionist in South Carolina who was involved in planning an uprising of slaves and was hanged after being betrayed by a fellow rebel
Theory of Nullification
the theory that states have the right to nullify a federal law they feel is unconstitutional (Kentucky and Virginia Resolves)
Tariff of 1832
The Tariff of 1832 was a protectionist tariff in the United States. It was passed as a reduced tariff to remedy the conflict created by the tariff of 1828, but it was still deemed unsatisfactory by southerners and other groups hurt by high tariff rates. Southern opposition to this tariff and its predecessor, the Tariff of Abominations, caused the Nullification Crisis involving South Carolina. The tariff was later lowered to pacify these objections.
Force Bill
1833 - The Force Bill authorized President Jackson to use the army and navy to collect duties on the Tariffs of 1828 and 1832. South Carolina's ordinance of nullification had declared these tariffs null and void, and South Carolina would not collect duties on them. The Force Act was never invoked because it was passed by Congress the same day as the Compromise Tariff of 1833, so it became unnecessary. South Carolina also nullified the Force Act.
Compromise Tariff
Henry Clay comes up with this, saying that the tariff will slowly lower, but a Force Bill will be passed, saying that if you don't pay, you will be forced. In response to the nullification crisis
Specie Circular
issued by President Jackson in 1836, was meant to stop land speculation caused by states printing paper money without proper specie (gold or silver) backing it. It required that the purchase of public lands be paid for in specie. It stopped the land speculation and the sale of public lands went down sharply. The panic of 1837 followed.
Favorite Sons
In the election of 1836, the Whigs lacked a dominant leader so they relied on local candidates in the hopes of throwing the election into the House of Reps
Election of 1836
Martin Van Buren won, Jackson supported him (blamed for the Panic of 1837, not Andrew Jackson) vs. the Whig's Favorite Sons
Election of 1840
William Henry Harrison (Whigs) with John Tyler as VP, "hard cider and log cabins" campaign Vs. Martin Van Buren (Democrats).
Panic of 1837
When Jackson was president, many state banks received government money that had been withdrawn from the Bank of the U.S. These banks issued paper money and financed wild speculation, especially in federal lands. Jackson issued the Specie Circular to force the payment for federal lands with gold or silver. Many state banks collapsed as a result. A panic ensued (1837). Bank of the U.S. failed, cotton prices fell, businesses went bankrupt, and there was widespread unemployment and distress. It was short-lived and reduced the pressure on the economy
Independent Treasury Act
In the wake of the Specie Circular and the Panic of 1837, President Van Buren proposed, and Congress passed this act. The system that was created took the federal government out of banking. All payments to the government were to be made in hard cash and it was to be stored in government vaults until needed.