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bound morphemea morphene that is not a word and cannot stand along (e.g., -s, tri-).closed syllablea syllable ending in a consonant sound (e.g. make, duck). They create a long vowel sound in the next syllable.clustera spiderlike diagram used to collect and organize ideas after reading or before wiriting; also called a map or a web.comprehensionthe process of constructing meaning using both the author's text and th ereader's background knowledge for a specific purpose. There are three levels: literal, inferential and evaluative.concepts about print (CAP)basic understandings about the way print works, including the direction of print (return sweeping), spacing, punctuation, letters and words, print carries meaning, book orientation. Implicit teaching: reading aloud, shared book experience, big books, LEA, environmental print, print-rich environment. Explicit: letter recognition, associating names and things with letters, singing the alphabet, ABC books, upper and lower case letter writing, tactile and kinesthetic methods.consonanta speech sound characterized by friction or stoppage of the airflow as it passes through the vocal tract; usually any letter except a,e,i,o, and u.consonant digraphto adjacent consonants that represent a sound not represented by either consonant alone (e.g., th-this, ch-chin, sh-wash, ph-telephone).content-area readingreading in social studies, science, and other areas of the curriculum.context clueinformation from the words or sentences surrounding a word that helps to clarify the word's meaning.cueing systemsthe phonological, semantic, syntactic, and pragmatic information that students rely on as they read.decodingusing word-identification strategies to pronounce and attach meaning to an unfamiliar word. (Taking a series of symbols--like the Matrix--and breaking it down into meaning).dipthonga sound produced when the tongue glides from one sound to another; it is represented by two vowels (e.g., oy-boy, ou-house, ow-how).draftingthe second stage of the writing process, in which writers pour out ideas in a rough draft.echo readingthe teacher or other reader reads a sentence and a group of students reread or "echo" what was read. A great tool for helping to develop fluency.editingthe fourthe stage of the writing process, in which writers proofread to identify and correct spelling, capitalization, punctuation, and grammatical errors.efferent readingreading for informationElkonin boxesa strategy for segmenting sounds in a word that involves drawing a box to represent each sound in a word.emergent literacychildren's early reading and writing development before conventional reading and writing.environmental printsigns, labels, and other print found in the communityetymologythe origin and history of words; the etymological information is enclosed in brackets in dictionariesexplicit instructionsystematic instruction of concepts, strategies, and skills that builds from simple to complex.exploringthe fourth stage of the reading process, in which readers reread the text, study vocabulary words, and then learn strategies and skillsexpository textnonfictionfluencyreading smoothly, quickly and with expression (prosody)free morphemea morpheme that can stand alone as a word (e.g. book, cycle).frustration levelthe level of reading material that is too difficult for a student to read successfully. < 95% on a Running Recordgenrea category of literature such as folklore, science fiction, biography, traditional, modern / high fantasy, contemporary realistic fiction, informational books or historical fictiongoldilocks principlea strategy for choosing "just right books."grand conversationa small-group or whole-class discussion about literaturegraphemea written representation of a sound using one or more letters.graphic organizersdiagrams that provide organized visual representations of information from textsgraphophonemicreferring to sound-symbol relationshipsguided readingstudents work in small groups to read as independently as possible a text selected and introduced by the teacher. (Fountas & Pinnell)high-frequency wordsa common English word, usually a word among the 100-300 most common wordshomographic homophoneswords that sound alike and are spelled alike but have different meanings (e.g. baseball bat and the animal bat).homonymswords that sound alike but are spelled differently (e.g. see-sea, there-their-they're), also called homophones.hyperbolea stylistic device involving obvious exaggerationsimagerythe use of words and figurative language to creat an impressionindependent reading levelthe level of reading material that a student can read independently with high comprehension and an accuracy level of 95-100%inferential comprehensionusing background knowledge and determining relationships between objects and events in a text to draw conclusions not explicitly stated in the textinflectional endingssuffixes that express plurality or possession when added to a noun (e.g. girls, girl's), tense when added to a verb (e.g. walked, walking), or comparison when added to an adjective (e.g. happier, happiest).informal reading inventory (IRI)an individually administered reading test composed of word recognition lists, graded reading passages, reading interest survey, CAP, phonemic awareness test, phonics tests, structural analysis tests, content reading CLOZE test, vocabulary tests and spelling tests. They are used separately or together to determine students' independent, instructional, and frustration levels and listening capacity levelsinstructional reading levelthe level of reading material that a student can read with the teacher support and instruction with 95-97% accuracyinteractive writinga writing activity in which students and the teacher write a text together, with the students taking turns to do most of the writinginvented spellingstudents' attempts to spell words that reflect their developing knowledge about the spelling system.K-W-Lan activity to activate background knowledge and set purposes for reading an informational text and to bring closure after reading. What we Know, What I Wonder, and What I Learned. Also good to do in the beginning of a thematic unit, genre study or content-area literacy.Language Experience Approach (LEA)A student's oral composition is written by the teacher and used as a text for reading instruction; it is usually used with beginning readersleveling booksa method of estimating the difficulty level of a textlexile scoresa method of extimating the difficulty level of a textlistening capacity levelthe highest level of graded passage that can be comprehended well when read aloud to the student.literacythe ability to read and writeliteral comprehensionthe understanding of what is explicitly stated in a textliterature circlean instructional approach in which students meet in small groups to read and respond to a bookliterature focus unitan approach to reading instruction in which the whole class reads and responds to a piece of literature.long vowelsthe vowel sounds that are also names of the alphabet letters.lowercase lettersthe letters that are smaller and usually different from uppercase letters. They are also harder to read and are evident in emerging writers' writing last.metacognitionstudents' thinking about their own thought and learning processmetaphora comparison expressed directly, without using like or as.minilessonexplicit instruction about literacy procedures, concepts, strategies, and skills that are taught to individual students, small groups, or the whole class, depending on students' needs.miscue analysisa strategy for categorizing and analyzing a student's oral reading errors. (In the QRI)moodthe tone of a story or poemmorphemethe smallest meaningful part of a word; sometimes it is a word (e.g., cup, hope), and sometimes it is not a whole word (e.g., -ly, bi-)narrativea storyonsetthe part of a syllable (or the one-syllable word) that comes before the vowel (e.g., str in string)open syllablea syllable ending in a vowel sound (e.g., sea). They also produce long vowel sounds (e.g., frozen)orthographythe spelling systempersonificationfigurative language in which objects and animals are represented as having human qualitiesphonemea sound; it is represented in print with slashes (e.g., /s/ and /th/).phoneme-grapheme correspondencethe relationship between a sound and the letter that represents itphonemic awarenessthe ability to manipulate the sounds in words orallyphonicspredictable relationships between phonemes and graphemesphonics instructionteaching the relationship between letters and sounds and how to use them to read and spell wordsphonological awarenessthe ability to identify and manipulate phonemes, onsets and rimes, and syllables; it includes phonemic awarenessphonologythe sound system of languagepolysyllablemore than one syllable in a wordpragmaticsthe social use system of languagepredictiona strategy in which students predics what will happen in a story and then read to verify their guessesprefixa syllable added to the beginning of a word to change the word's meaning (e.g., re-in reread).prereadingthe first stage of the reading process, in which readers activate background knowledge, set purposes, and make plans for readingprewritingthe first stage of the writing process, in which writers gather and organize ideas for writingproofreadingreading a composition to identify and correct spelling and other mechanical errorspublishingthe fifth stage of the writing process, in which writers make the final copy of their writing and share it with an audiencequickwritean activity in which students explore a topic through writingreadability formulaa method of estimating the difficulty level of a textreadingthe second stage of the reading process, in which readers read the text for the first time using independent reading, or guided reading, or by listening to it read aloudReading Workshopan approach in which students read self-selected texts independentlyrespondingthe third stage of the reading process, in which readers respond to the text, often through grand conversations and by writing in reading logsrevisingthe third stage of the writing process, in which writers clarify meaning in the writingrhymingwords with the same rime sound (e.g., white, bright)rimethe part of a syllable (or one-syllable word) that begins with the vowel (e.g. ing in string)scaffoldingthe support a teacher provides to students as they read and writesegmentto pronounce a word slowly, saying each sound distinctlysemanticsthe meaning system of languageshared readingthe teacher reads a book aloud with a group of children as they follow along in the text, often using a Big Bookshort vowelsthe vowel sounds in cat, bed, big, hop and cut.similea comparison expressed using like or asskillan automatic processing behavior that students use in reading and writing, such as sounding out words, recognizing antonyms, and capitalizing proper nouns.strategya problem-solving behavior that students use in reading and writing, such as predicting, monitoring, visualizing, and summarizingsuffixa syllable added to the end of a word to change the word's meaning (e.g., -y in hairy, -ful in careful).sustained silent reading (SSR)independent reading practice in which everyone in the class or in the school stops what they are doing and spends time (20-30) minutes reading a self-selected book.syllablean uninterrupted segment of speech that includes a vowel soundsynonymswords that mean nearly the same thingsyntaxthe structural system of language or grammartrade booka published book that is not a textbook; the type of books in bookstores and librariesuppercase lettersthe letters that are larger. They usually appear first in childrens' emergent writing.vowela voiced speech sound made without friction or stoppage of the airflow as it passes through the vocal tractvowel digraphtwo or more adjacent vowels in a syllable that represent a single sound (e.g., bread, eight, pain, saw)word familiesgroups of words that rhymeword identificationstrategies that students use to decode words, such as phonic analysis, analogies, syllabic analysis, and morephemic analysisword sorta word-study activity in which students group words into categoriesword wallan alphabetized chart posted in the classroom listing words students are learningwriting processthe process in which students use prewriting, drafting, revising, editing, and publishing to develop and refine a compositionwriting workshopan approach in which students use the writing process to write books and other compositions on self-selected topicsZone of Proximal Development (ZPD)the distance between a child's actual developmental level and his or her potential developmental level that can be reached with scaffolding by the teacher or classmates.beginning, medial and finalrefer to locations of phonemes. Medial=middle.dipthongsglided sounds made by such vowel combinations as oi in oil and oy in boy. When pronouncing a dipthong, the tongue starts in one position and moves rapidly to another.phonogramsare rimes that have the same spelling. Words that share the asme phonogram are word families. Rime or phonogram: at. Word family: cat, bat, sat.Phonemic Awareness tasksUse phoneme i/o "sound;" phoneme matching, isolation, blending, substitution, deletion, and segmentation. Implicit phonemic awareness tasks includee using books with wordplay, rhyming games, alliterationa nd tongue twisters, songs and chants.morphologythe study of word formation. Using morphological clues is also called structural analysis.word banka child's personal collection of words that he or she knows well enough in isolation.stages of spellingpre-phonetic, phonetic, transitional and conventionalpre-phonetic stage of spelling (1)children do not write at least one letter for each sound. There is no understanding of the alphabetic principle. Teach CAP, phonemic awareness, and then phonics.phonetic stage of spelling (2)letters represent sounds and at least one letter represents each sound in a word. All phonemes have a grapheme. Teach regular, frequently occurring sound-symbol correspondences.transitional stage of spelling (3)a child knows most of the orthographic patterns of English. Mistakes frequently occur with sounds that have several spellings. Teach lessons on morphology and etymology of words and alternative spellings of the same sounds.conventional stage of spelling (4)almost all words are spelled correctly. Teach highly irregular words and words for specific content areas.literal comprehension skillsidentifying the main idea when explicitly states, important details, sequence of events and cause-and-effect relationshipsinferential comprehension skillsinferring the main idea, inferring details, sequence of events and cause-and-effect relationshipsevaluative comprehension skillsrecognizing an author's bias, detecting propoganda, distinguishing between fact and opinion.comprehension strategiesself-monitoring, re-reading, summarizing, note-taking and outlining, mapping, learning logs where they generate questions about the textQuestion-Answer Relationships (QAR's)Right there (literal), Think and Search (literal), Author and You (inferential) and On My Own (inferential or evaluative).Before readingactivate prior knowledge, teach the meaning of difficult words (KWL or PreP)Reciprocal TeachingA method to teach four comprehension strategies: generating questions, summarizing, clarifying and predicting.ways to enhance fluencyrepeated readings, assisted reading, choral reading, reader's theater, lots of fluency modeledexpository text structurescause and effect, problem / solution, comparison / contrast, sequence, descriptionCLOZEassessment to determine instructional, independent or frustration reading levels. A great way to assess the whole class at once. Passages need to be > 275 words. Teacher deletes every fifth word. Independent = 60% or more of the words, Instructional = 40-60% of the words, Frustration = less than 40% of the words.teaching content-area literacylink to prior knowledge, preview the content with graphic organizer, focus student attention on essential information, explicitly teach how to use text structures to aid in comprehension.teaching study skillsorganization of an encyclopedia, index, scanning for specific information, etc.independent readingfamiliarity with language patterns, increases fluency, increases vocabulary, broadens knowledge in the content area, motivates further readingassessing independent readinginterest inventories, invidivual conferences, student reading logs / journals and parent surveys @ homeHow to promote independent readinginteresting books @ independent reading level, SSR, Readers / Writers workshop, frequent opportunities to share what has been read, reading journals, individual conferences, lit. cicrles, response groups, grand conversations, book clubs, promoting books (book talks, books connected to other content areas, trips to the library)How to integrate oral language into readinglanguage play to develop phonics and phonemic awareness, drama, group discussions of books, having students answer questions, share info about what they have read.Types of Journalspersonal journals, dialogue journals, reading logs / reading response journals, double-entry journals, content learning logsvocabularylistening vocabulary, speaking vocabulary, writing vocabulary, sight (reading) vocabulary, meaning (reading) vocabularyHow to teach vocabularyread more and read lots of types of books, teach the meaning of specific words; cluing technique, contextual redefinition, semantic mapping, word sorts, semantic feature analysiscluing techniquesentences with the word used in a sentence, describing the characteristics of the target word, defines the target word in "kid-friendly"language, asks a question with the target word.contextual redefinitionstudents guess what the target word means, read the three sentences, guess again after using the context clues around the wordsemantic mappingdiagrams that are useful during pre-reading. The word is in the center circle and rays and circles branch out of the word.word-consciousnessan interest in words and their meaningshow to foster word-consciousnessword of the day, playing with words; idioms and puns, using the dictionary,clausehas a subject and a predicateindependent clausea clause that can stand alone (e.g., Darlene kicked the ball.)dependent clausea clause that is not a complete thought (e.g., ...who kicked the ball to Allen).simple sentencehas one independent clausecompound sentencemade up of two or more independent clauses (e.g., He felt that he would be short forever, and he tried to get used to it.")how to teach / assess language structuretests: scrambling a paragraph, error analysis, choice of words, direct lessons, individual conferences, error analysishow to build academic languagemodel, read content-area texts aloud, sentence expansion and combining, proofreading.RICA Content AreasPHA (phonemic awareness), CAP, PH & OT (phonics & other word I.D. strategies), SP (spelling), COM (comprehension), LIT (literary response & analysis), CONT (content area literacy), INRD (independent reading), WROR (writing and oral language), VOC (vocab), STR (structure of language), EL (English learners).