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Earth science

is the study of the process that form and change the Earth


the process of looking at and studying things in the world

independent variable

what is changed in an experiment

dependent variable

measured in an experiment


a variable that can't change


standard to which results can be changed







STM 1.

identify a question

STM 2.

gather information

STM 3.

make a hypothesis

STM 4.

test the hypothesis

STM 5.

analyze the results

STM 6.

draw conclusions


the proposed answer to the problem being tested


the measure of the amount of matter in an object


Mass depends on _________ that make up an object


anything that has mass and takes up space


the building blocks of all matter


charge: +, location: nucleus, mass: 1


charge: 0, location: nucleus, mass: 1


charge: -, location: electron cloud, mass: 0

Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma

four states of matter


freezing point for water


boiling point for water

All minerals are formed by natural processes

1st on MC

minerals are inorganic

2nd on MC

every mineral is an element or compound

3rd on MC

minerals are crystalline solids

4th on MC

orderly arrangement of atoms

5th on MC

Natural processes, dissolved in water

2 ways minerals are formed


horizontal distances between opposite crystal surfaces are equal


ex. baurite, unequal dimensions in length


unequal dimensions; one right angle other angles are oblique


unequal in all dimensions and all angles where crystals surfaces meet are oblique


tetragonal; like cubic crystals; one of the principles dimensions is longer or shorter than the other two dimensions


equal in size along three principal dimensions; forms from crystals


a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched

hardness, easily break, color crushed into powder

properties to identify minerals


the awy a mineral reflects light

specific gravity

the ratio of a minerals weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water


the color of a mineral when its in powder form


Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces


minerals that break with rough, uneven, or jagged surfaces


a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profited

Rocks are made up of many different minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter compared to a mineral which is not made of rock but made of natural processes

What is the difference between a rock and a mineral


Rocks that form from magma below the surface


formed as lava cools on the surface of the earth

they are formed in different areas Intr. below extru. above

what is the difference between extrusive and intrusive

igneous rock

when hot magma cools and hardens


when magma reaches the surface and flows from volcanoes


igneous rocks are dense, dark-colored rocks


igneous rocks are light-colored rocks of a lower density than basaltic rocks

metamorphic rock

rocks that have changed because of changes in temperature and pressure or the presence of hot, watery fluids


when mineral grains line up parallel layers metamorphic rock is considered to have this texture


when the mineral grains grow and rearrange, and don't form layers

when the sediments are pressed and cemented together by the wind blowing towards the rock and pressed together

the way sedimentary rocks are formed by sediments

sedimentary rock

forms from sediments


made up of rock fragments mineral grains and bits of shells

detrital Sedimentary rock

made of broken fragments of other rocks

chemical sedimentary rocks

form from dissolved minerals come out of solution

organic sedimentary rock

rocks made of the remains of once-living things

Continental drift

continents that have moved slowly to their current location

Alfered Wegner purposed teh idea of continents that were together "continental drift"

what is the idea of continental drift


a large landmass connected together that broke apart 200 million years ago

fossil clues (the Mesosaurus had been found in South America and Africa it is a fresh water animal and a land animal but it was on a land separated by salt water Wegener pruposed lived on both continents when they were joined)

1 evidence CD

widespread of plants (Glossopterous found in Africa, India, South America, and Antarctica since in so many regions Wegener which also helped him with the idea that every continent was together at once)

2 evidence CD

Climate clues (Wegener used continental drift to explain evidence of changing climates ex. fossils of warm weathered plants were found on the island of Spitsbergen in the Arctic ocean Wegener hypothesized that Spitsbergen drifted from tropical regions to the arctic ocean)

3 evidence CD

Rock clues (if teh continents were conected at one time, then rocks that make up the continents should be the same locations where they were joined similar rock structures are found on different continents)

4 evidence CD

its a big landmass of continents that Wegener proposed started out as all the continents today

the formation of Pangaea

Seafloor spreading

Hess proposed that hot, less dense material below the Earth's crust rises toward the surface at the mid-ocean ridges


the plates come together

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