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73 terms

Science- everything from the study guide

Earth science
is the study of the process that form and change the Earth
the process of looking at and studying things in the world
independent variable
what is changed in an experiment
dependent variable
measured in an experiment
a variable that can't change
standard to which results can be changed
STM 1.
identify a question
STM 2.
gather information
STM 3.
make a hypothesis
STM 4.
test the hypothesis
STM 5.
analyze the results
STM 6.
draw conclusions
the proposed answer to the problem being tested
the measure of the amount of matter in an object
Mass depends on _________ that make up an object
anything that has mass and takes up space
the building blocks of all matter
charge: +, location: nucleus, mass: 1
charge: 0, location: nucleus, mass: 1
charge: -, location: electron cloud, mass: 0
Solid, Liquid, Gas, Plasma
four states of matter
freezing point for water
boiling point for water
All minerals are formed by natural processes
1st on MC
minerals are inorganic
2nd on MC
every mineral is an element or compound
3rd on MC
minerals are crystalline solids
4th on MC
orderly arrangement of atoms
5th on MC
Natural processes, dissolved in water
2 ways minerals are formed
horizontal distances between opposite crystal surfaces are equal
ex. baurite, unequal dimensions in length
unequal dimensions; one right angle other angles are oblique
unequal in all dimensions and all angles where crystals surfaces meet are oblique
tetragonal; like cubic crystals; one of the principles dimensions is longer or shorter than the other two dimensions
equal in size along three principal dimensions; forms from crystals
a measure of how easily a mineral can be scratched
hardness, easily break, color crushed into powder
properties to identify minerals
the awy a mineral reflects light
specific gravity
the ratio of a minerals weight compared with the weight of an equal volume of water
the color of a mineral when its in powder form
Minerals that break along smooth, flat surfaces
minerals that break with rough, uneven, or jagged surfaces
a mineral or rock that contains a useful substance that can be mined at a profited
Rocks are made up of many different minerals, rock fragments, volcanic glass, organic matter compared to a mineral which is not made of rock but made of natural processes
What is the difference between a rock and a mineral
Rocks that form from magma below the surface
formed as lava cools on the surface of the earth
they are formed in different areas Intr. below extru. above
what is the difference between extrusive and intrusive
igneous rock
when hot magma cools and hardens
when magma reaches the surface and flows from volcanoes
igneous rocks are dense, dark-colored rocks
igneous rocks are light-colored rocks of a lower density than basaltic rocks
metamorphic rock
rocks that have changed because of changes in temperature and pressure or the presence of hot, watery fluids
when mineral grains line up parallel layers metamorphic rock is considered to have this texture
when the mineral grains grow and rearrange, and don't form layers
when the sediments are pressed and cemented together by the wind blowing towards the rock and pressed together
the way sedimentary rocks are formed by sediments
sedimentary rock
forms from sediments
made up of rock fragments mineral grains and bits of shells
detrital Sedimentary rock
made of broken fragments of other rocks
chemical sedimentary rocks
form from dissolved minerals come out of solution
organic sedimentary rock
rocks made of the remains of once-living things
Continental drift
continents that have moved slowly to their current location
Alfered Wegner purposed teh idea of continents that were together "continental drift"
what is the idea of continental drift
a large landmass connected together that broke apart 200 million years ago
fossil clues (the Mesosaurus had been found in South America and Africa it is a fresh water animal and a land animal but it was on a land separated by salt water Wegener pruposed lived on both continents when they were joined)
1 evidence CD
widespread of plants (Glossopterous found in Africa, India, South America, and Antarctica since in so many regions Wegener which also helped him with the idea that every continent was together at once)
2 evidence CD
Climate clues (Wegener used continental drift to explain evidence of changing climates ex. fossils of warm weathered plants were found on the island of Spitsbergen in the Arctic ocean Wegener hypothesized that Spitsbergen drifted from tropical regions to the arctic ocean)
3 evidence CD
Rock clues (if teh continents were conected at one time, then rocks that make up the continents should be the same locations where they were joined similar rock structures are found on different continents)
4 evidence CD
its a big landmass of continents that Wegener proposed started out as all the continents today
the formation of Pangaea
Seafloor spreading
Hess proposed that hot, less dense material below the Earth's crust rises toward the surface at the mid-ocean ridges
the plates come together

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