Byzantine Empire + Kievan Rus
Terms in this set (52)
Eastern half of the Roman Empire that survived the fall of the Western half. Capital: Constantinople. Easy access to Med. Sea and Silk Road (Bosphorus Strait). Theocracy
Connects Aegean Sea and Black Sea.
Emperor of the Roman Empire who moved the capital to Constantinople - grew the city by convincing wealthy Romans that palaces were promised for them there. Edict of Milan, Christian convert.
Capital of Byzantine Empire. "New Rome". Heavily fortified. Multi-ethnic. 600,000 people at Constantine's rule. Greek spoken, official language Latin.
Byzantine Empire who grew empire to its largest extent. Harsh policies. Created Justinian's Code. Built Hagia Sophia
Justinian's controversial co-empress and wife.
Improved the status of women in the Byzantine Empire, encouraged her husband to stay in Constantinople and fight the Nika Revolt.
Riot in 532 by fans of two rival chariot-racing teams (Blues and Greens) who came together to riot against taxation. Justinian had it put down (after Theodora convinced him not to flee) and more than 30,000 were killed in the Hippodrome
"Corpus Juris Civilis". Commission that arranged legal opinions and already present laws into a clear cut system.
large domed church reconstructed in Constantinople during the reign of Justinian
Pictures or patterns formed when pieces of glass, stone, and clay are arranged in an artistic fashion.
No separation of church and state. Emperor is considered head of church, and appoints Patriarch of Constantinople.
Bottom of hierarchy. In charge of individual churches.
2nd level of hierarchy. In charge of a particular region of Christians and churches. Controls the diocese
A church district controlled by a bishop
3rd level of hierarchy. Chief of bishops in a larger area. Controlled a cathedral
Slightly above Archbishops, special. Cities of Constantinople, Rome, Alexandria, Jerusalem, and Antioch.
Patriarch of Rome, argued by Roman Catholic church to be most important due to the Petrine Doctrine. Head of Roman Catholic Church.
The statement based on Jesus' words (keys to my kingdom) that popes used to validate their claim as successors of Saint Peter and chief of the apostles. Byzantines did not accept it.
Sacred religious images representing Jesus, Mary and the saints. Created with a variety of medias (wood, marble, ceramic, etc)
A belief that the practice of worshiping and honoring objects such as icons was sinful.
Religious leaders feared icons may replace the Holy Communion as main form of worship. Also saw other monotheistic faiths (Judaism) were completely opposed to the idea.
Split of the Eastern Orthodox and Catholic churches because of differences in iconoclasm, marriage rights, language, and pope's authority.
Eastern Orthodox Church (5)
Greek language, council of priests make religious decisions, emperor oversees church law, members of clergy can marry. Byzantine Empire.
large plain stretching across Europe's central Asia. grassy and treeless in south, black fertile soil near ukraine.
Slavic Peoples (Regions)
East - Ukrainian, Russian
West - Polish, Slovak, Czech
South - Serbian, Croatian, Solvenian
Hunter gatherers due to short growing seasons and unplowable soil
Viking people who settle I'm north and took Slavic people I'm thr south
Leader of the Rus - took control of Novgorod 862
Most important city state - capital. On trade route between Constantinople and Black Sea (Dnieper R). Other city states paid tribute.
controlled by Rurik in 862
Yaroslav the Wise
Russian leader who organized Russian law into the Pravda Russkia
Kievan ruler who adopted Eastern Orthodox Christianity. ordered for the destruction of pagan idols and temples. Married Byzantine emperor's sister.
Greek monk sent on a mission. Wanted to translate religious texts for wider audiences. Developed Cyrillic alphabet that was adopted by many Slavic groups.
Alphabet system based on greek. Developed by Cyril, adopted by many Slavic groups.
An ancient Greek stadium used for horse and chariot racing. Nika revolters trapped in here and slaughtered.
Why did Constantine move the center of the empire to Constantinople?*
The east was richer than the west, easier to defend, great for trade, and Rome was beginning to crumble.
How was Constantinople protected (both naturally and through construction projects)?*
Heavily fortified with its stone walls with towers, and moat. Located on peninsula (protected by water on 3 sides). Long iron chains blocked sea entry.
What contributions did Justinian make to the Byzantine Empire?*
Justinian's Code, building accomplishments (Hagia Sophia and Valens Aqueduct), military success (largest expansion)
Why is Justinian's reign considered a Golden Age?*
Fulfills signs of a Golden Age: centralized gov, military success, cultural advancement.
What problems did the Byzantine Empire face involving religion?*
What tensions existed between the Eastern and Western churches?
iconoclasm, marriage rights, language, and pope's authority.
What caused the final split of the church in 1054?*
The Pope and Patriarch of Constaninople were not getting along.
What factors contributed to the fall of the Byzantine Empire? (5)
Constant threat of attack from northern invaders, Muslim conquerors weakened Byzantine claims to North Africa and Middle East, weak leadership, Turks begin to gradually conquer remaining Byzantine territory, Ottoman Turks sack Constantinople in 1453 and take over.
How did the civilization of Kievan Rus grow and develop?*
It was not an empire; it was a collection of kingdoms and city states.
Political elements of the Kievan Rus
Collection of selfgoverning kingdoms and city states ruled by councils of boyars, and princes. They all paid tribute to Grand Prince of Kiev (who was elected by boyars). Public meetings (veche) were held to discuss important matters. Pravda Russkia = law code (Yaroslav the Wise).
Economic elements of the Kievan Rus
Agriculture in south w/ steppe. North had short growing seasons and cold winters. Traded with byzantines. Sold wood, iron, salt, fur, honey, slaves. Got jewlery, silver, textiles.
Social elements of the Kievan Rus
Top to bottom: Princes and families, Boyars, Artisans and Merchants, Peasant Farmers (largest group). Clergy is separate category.
Intellectual Elements of the Kievan Rus*
Artistic Elements of the Kievan Rus*
Art was heavily influenced by religious themes.
Why did the Kievan Rus adopt Orthodox Christianity
Vladimir I wanted to marry sister of Byzantine Emperor. Other religions had restrictions (Islam and alcohol, Catholicism and strictness, Judaism and stigma of expulsion). Splendor and pageantry of Orthodox Christianity was appealing.