Glencoe Life Science Chap.4
Vocab words from chapter 4 & review questions
Terms in this set (44)
process in which the nucleus divides to form two identical nuclei; the two new nuclei contain the same number of chromosomes as original nucleus
a structure in the nucleus that contains hereditary material; they are duplicated during interphase
fission, budding & regeneration
haploid sex cell formed in the male reproductive organs; in humans, male reproductive cells produced in the testes
haploid sex cell formed in the female reproductive organs
in sexual reproduction, the joining of a sperm and egg
new diploid cell formed when a sperm fertilizes an egg; will divide by mitosis and develop into a new organism
cell whose similar chromosomes occur in pairs
cell that has half the number of chromosomes as body cells
the process of nuclear division that produces haploid sex cells; reproductive process that produces four haploid sex cells from one diploid cell and ensures offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as the parent organisms.
a code stored in the cell's genetic material; it contains information for an organism's growth and development; deoxyribonucleic acid; the genetic material of all organisms made up of two twisted strands of sugar phosphate molecules and nitrogen bases
section of DNA on a chromosome that contains instructions for making specific proteins
carries the code for making proteins from the nucleus to the ribosomes
a mistake that is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of a gene or chromosome; add variety to a species and most are not harmful; they help a species to adapt
4 phases of mitosis:
~nuclear membrane disintegrates ~chromosomes are paired
~centrioles move to opposite ends of the cell
~spindle fibers form and stretch across cell
~chromosomes line up across the center of the cell
~centromere of each pair of chromosomes attach to spindle fibers
~centromeres divide (split) and the spindle fibers shorten
~chromosome pairs separate and move to opposite sides of the cell
~spindle fibers disappear
~cytoplasm begins to divide
~2 identical cells form
~Most of the life cycle of a cell occurs during this phase
~It is ready for growth and development (getting ready to divide)
~Copy of all the hereditary material is made before the cell divides
~Some cells, such as nerve and muscle cells, remain in this phase after growth stops
Examples of asexual reproduction:
copies genetic material and then divides without a nucleus (ex. bacteria)
a bud forms on the organism and when it falls off, a new organism forms (ex. hydra)
a piece of the original organism can grow into an organism (ex. sea star)
How many chromosome pairs do humans have?
23 pairs, 46 total
How do mutations occur?
2 ways, chemicals & x-rays
The traits of the offspring in asexual reproduction compares to its parents by being:
an exact copy
The traits of the offspring in sexual reproduction compares to its parents by:
having traits from both parents
DNA is stored in the:
ribosomal RNA; type of RNA that makes up part of the ribosome
transport RNA, it carries the amino acid
messenger RNA, it goes back and forth from the ribosome to the nucleus
Sex cells have how many chromosomes?
Body cells have how many chromosomes?
What do plant NOT have?
Meiosis is important because:
it ensures that offspring will have the same number of chromosomes as their parents;after meiosis you have 4 haploid sex cells
The 4 nitrogen bases in DNA are:
Guanine, Cytosine, Adenine, Thymine
What are the differences of nitrogen bases for DNA & RNA:
RNA has Uracil, & GCNA; DNA has GCAT
When do centrioles form and what cells do they form:
It is in plant cells. But because plants have a cell wall it can't pinch off
What is the difference between of Mitosis & Meiosis?
Mitosis is the division of the nucleus to create a new cell and Meiosis is creating a new cell but it happens twice in Meiosis 1 & Meiosis 2
What is the difference between animal cells and plant cells during mitosis?
the plant cell has a cell plate
The bonds between nitrogen bases are broken during DNA copying by:
The strands of DNA are unzipped when it is about to be copied. Enzymes help to unzip the DNA
Mitosis is important because:
it is critical to the development and repair of cells because they are constantly dying off
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