1. Demographics (declining birthrates/ aging pop.
2. Rising cost (esp healthcare: technology).
3. Declining economic growth (slow down of Europe/NA, rise of developing nations).
4. Changes in the labour market (employment less secure - people change jobs more frequently, more part time work, women in the workforce - need mat leave, childcare).
5. Globalization (creates unemployment in advanced ind. democracies, globalization of finance - companies can move out of areas with high taxes - creates race to the bottom).