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27 terms

Chem Vocab Chapter 3

Flood Chemistry
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chemical change
a process involving one or more substances changing into new substances
chemical property
the ability or inability of a substance to combine with or change into one or more new substances
chromatography
a technique that is used to separate the components of a mixture based on the tendency of each component of a mixture to travel or be drawn across the surface of another material
compound
a chemical combination of two or more different elements; can be broken down into simpler substances by chemical means and has properties different from those of its component elements
crystallization
a separation technique that produces pure solid particles of a substance from a solution that contains the dissolved substance
distillation
a technique that can be used to physically separate most homogeneous mixtures based on the differences in the boiling points of the substances involved
element
a pure substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by physical or chemical means
extensive properties
a physical property, such as mass, length, and volume, that is dependents upon the amount of substance present
filtration
technique that uses a porous barrier to separate a solid from a liquid
gas
a form of matter that flows to conform to the shape of its container, fills the container's entire volume, and is easily compressed
heterogeneous mixture
one that does not have a uniform composition and in which the individual substances remain distinct
homogeneous mixture
one that has a uniform composition throughout and always has a single phase
intensive properties
a physical property that remains the same no matter how much of a substance is present
law of conservation of mass
states that mass is neither created nor destroyed during a chemical reaction
law of definite proportions
states that, regardless of the amount, a compound is always of the same elements in the same proportion by mass
law of multiple proportions
states that when different compounds are formed by the combination of the same elements, different masses of one element combine with the same mass of the other element in a ration of small whole numbers
liquid
a form of matter that flows, has constant volume, and takes the shape of its contained
mixture
a physical blend of two or more pure substances in any proportions in which each substance retains its individual properties; can be separated by physical means
percent by mass
a percentage determined by the ratio of the mass of each element to the total mass of the compound
periodic table
a chart that organizes all known elements into a grid of periods and families arranged by increasing atomic number
physical changes
a type of change that alters the physical properties of a substance but does not change its composition
physical property
a characteristic of matter that can be observed or measured without changing the sample's composition
solid
a form of matter that has its own definite shape and volume, is incompressible, and expands only slightly when heated
solution
a uniform mixture that may be contain solids, liquids, or gases
states of matter
the physical forms in which all matter naturally exists on earth
substance
a form of matter that has a uniform and unchanging composition
vapor
gaseous state of a substance that is a liquid or a solid at room temperature