Human Growth and Development

Final Exam Study Guide Northwest MS Community College Instrucor: Phyllis Johnson
A baby born between the seventh and eighth month of pregnancy
usually needs oxygen assistance to breathe
A cell's normal genetic programming has been disrupted in Lois's body, causing uncontrolled growth and crowding out of normal cells. Lois has
A concrete operational child can ____mentally, an ability called____.
seriate; transitive inference
A diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease is made
through exclusion, after ruling out other causes of dementia
A gamete
contains 23 chromosomes
A genotype is a
complex blend of genetic information that determines the species and influences unique characteristics
A key concept in Rothbart's model of infant temperament is
effort control
A person who lists being a valued elder as a gratification of grandparenthood values
being perceived as a wise, helpful person
A strong____orientation, especially, predicts gains in life satisfaction after children depart depart from the home.
A teratogen is
any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period.
A zygote that separates into two clusters of cells instead of just one produces
identical twins
About 50 percent of adults over age 85 are affected by
About___percent of North American and Western European teenage girls are affected by anorexia nervosa.
About ____ of divorced people remarry
About ____percent of U.S. adolescents report having had sexual intercourse.
According to B.F. Skinner, language is acquired as the baby babbles and parents reinforce those sounds that are most like words. This is an example of
operant conditioning
According to Erikson's theory, a mistrustful baby
protects herself by withdrawing from people and things around her.
According to Erickson, a sense of ____ can develop in middle childhood when family life fails to prepare children for school life or when teachers and peers destroy children's feelings of competence and mastery with negative responses.
According to Erickson, despair occurs
when elders feel they have made many wrong decisions, yet time is too short to find an alternate route to integrity.
According to Erickson, once preschoolers have a sense of autonomy, they become less___ than they were as toddlers.
According to Erickson, one of the major functions of play is to allow children to
try out new skills with little risk of criticism or failure
According to Erickson, they psychological conflict of early adulthood is
intimacy versus isolation
According to Erickson, the psychological conflict of middle childhood is
industry versus inferiority
According to Kubler-Ross, Mrs. Buffay's consultation of multiple specialists after her initial diagnosis of a terminal illness is consistent with which typical response to the prospect of death?
According to Kublher-Ross, engaging in sympathetic listening is the best reaction to which typical response to the prospect of death?
According to Kublher-Ross, when denial, anger, and bargaining fail to postpone the illness, the person
becomes depressed
According to Levinson, middle adulthood begins with a
transitional period
According to Levinson, which of the following is true about gender differences in dreams?
Most career-oriented women display split dreams involving both marriage and career.
According to Piaget, around age 11, young people enter the formal operational stage of development, in which they
are able to come up with new, general logical rules through internal reflection.
According to Piaget, one limitation of concrete operational though is that children's mental operations work poorly with
abstract ideas
According to Piaget, specific psychological structures called ____ are organized ways of making sense of experience.
According to Piaget, the balance between assimilation and accomodation
varies over time
According to Piaget, the most fundamental deficiency of preoperational thinking is
According to Sternberg's theory of love,
intimacy, passion, and commitment shift in emphasis as romantic relationships develop
According to Vygotsky, learning takes place
within the zone of proximal development
According to Vygotsky, children master activities through
joint activities with more mature members of their society
According to research on blended families, which child is most likely to have adjustment problems when his or her mother remarries?
Selma, a 15-year-old girl
According to some behaviorists, children rely on____ to rapidly acquire complex utterances
According to some researchers, cognitive development continues beyond Piaget's formal operational stage to the ___ level.
postformal thought
Adolescent drug experimentation
should not be taken lightly because drug use can lead to permanent injury or death
Adolescents who believe they are the focus of everyone's attention are experiencing
the imaginary audience
Adolescents whose parents engage in ___ decision making achieve better academically
joint parent-adolescent
After her son's death; Mrs. Woodworth reorganized her daily life and started to overcome her loneliness by volunteering at a teen crisis center. Mrs. Woodworth is in which phase of the grieving process?
Although hearing loss has less impact on self-care than vision loss, it affects
enjoyment of life
Andrew has well-developed emotional self-regulation. He feels that he is in control of his emotional experiences. Andrew has acquired
a sense of emotional self-efficacy
Animal studies on early sensory deprivation
verify the existence of sensitive periods in brain development
Ann Marie has begun visiting matchmaking websites. She should know that
18 percent of online ties that evolve into offline relationships last for more than a year.
Ann is having more frequent disagreements with her teenage daughter. If they argue over typical parent-adolescent issues, these disagreements are most likely
about everyday matters, such as driving, dating partners, and curfew
Around 2 months, babies begin to make vowel-like noises called
Around 3 to 4 months of age,
when infants gaze, smile, or vocalize, they expect their social partner to respond in kind.
Around 7 to 9 months, infants
begin to divide the speech stream into worldlike units.
Around age 60, Alex's lens entirely lost its capacity to adjust to objects at varying distances. Alex has a condition called
Around the middle of the first year, infants smile and laugh more
when interacting with familiar people
As adults age, the skin
loses elasticity and begins to sag
As in early adulthood, ____ tend to be emotionally closes during middle adulthood.
sister-sister bonds
As infants understand more about their world, they laugh
at events with subtler elements of surprise.
As people approach the end of middle adulthood, they focus on ______ goals.
longer-term, less personal
As people discover that they are no longer as good as they once were at certain tasks, they accommodate shifting to activities that depend
more on accumulated knowledge
Assisting a suicide is illegal in
many, but not all, U.S. states.
At birth, the brain is
nearer to its adult size than any other physical structure.
At first, baby Mario was easily awakened every night by a barking dog in his neighborhood. Several weeks later, Mario's sleep is not bothered by the dog's barks. This is an example of
At the beginning of the period of the embryo, the _____ system develops fastest.
Babies develop attachments to
a variety of familiar people
Baby Greer says "bababababa." This is an example of
Barney and Cynthia met in college and married after they both graduated. They both work full-time. Which of the following is probably true?
Cynthia spends nearly twice as much time as Barney on housework
Basic emotions are
universal in humans
Because of life-saving medical technology,
three-fourths of deaths are long and drawn out
Because very few people would be willing to maintain a drastically reduced diet for most of their lifespan, scientists have begun to explore ______ that might yield the same benefits as calorie restriction, without dieting.
calorie-restriction mimetics
Before Jack's mother leaves for work every morning, she takes her car keys off of a hook on the wall. Now, as soon as she unhooks her car keys, Jack begins to cry. In this example, ____ is the conditioned response.
Beginning in the middle childhood, a common fear is
the possibility of personal harm
Bernice and Leo never had children. They married in their thirties, and their efforts at fertility treatments did not succeed. Bernice and Leo are
involuntarily childless.
Between the 1970s and 1990s, the rise in daily caloric intake
was enough to add an extra pound every 20 days.
Biological aging
is under way in early adulthood
Boys show superior athletic performance during teenage years because
they develop larger skeletal muscles, hearts, and lung capacity than girls.
Breastfeeding for just a few weeks
offers some protection against respiratory and intestinal infections
By 2 years of age, a typical toddler's height is ____percent greater than at birth and birth weigh has____.
75: quadrupled
By 6 months of age, babies can categorize on the basis of
two correlated features
By middle adulthood, thinking is characterized by an increase in
By the end of middle childhood, children display a strong desire for
group belonging
Carlie engages in strict dieting and excessive exercise accompanied by binge eating, often followed by purging. Carlie suffers from
bulimia nervosa
Carmen adopted her son just after his second birthday. What can you tell Carmen about the opportunity for attachment?
The first attachment bond can develop as late as 4 to 6 years of age
Carmen lost her job of 16 years as a result of downsizing. Which of the following is likely to be true?
She will be overqualified for many openings when she tries to find a new job.
Ceremonies that commemorate death
are strikingly different in various cultures
Child-directed speech and parent-child conversation
create a zone of proximal development in which children's language skills will expand
Children acquire motor skills
in highly individual ways
Children whose parents use a(n)____ child-rearing style feel especially good about themselves
Cindy, age 48, cares for her two teenage sons and her ailing mother-in-law. Along with her mother, she is one of a handful of caregivers for her elderly grandmother. Cindy belongs to the _____ generation
Compared with school-age children, preschoolers
spend shorter times involved in tasks and are easily distracted
Danielle saw a man carrying a sign that said "I'm hungry." She took the man's perspective, imagined how he felt, and asked her mom if she could give her allowance to the man so that he could buy some food. Danielle has developed
Despite declines in family size, ___ percent of Western babies grow up with at least on sibling.
Development is best understood as
a series of complex exchanges between nature and nurture
Directly observed characteristics, such as eye color and height, are called
Down syndrome most commonly results from
a failure of the twenty-first pair of chromosomes to separate during meosis
During the conservation-of-water experiment, Emme can focus on several aspects of the problem and relate them, rather than centering on just one aspect. Therefore, Emme is capable of
During midlife, most adults begin to
experience life-threatening health episodes-if not in themselves, then in their partners and friends.
During mitosis,
the chromosomes copy themselves
During the ___ month of pregnancy, the embryo responds to touch.
During adolescent growth spurt,
girls require somewhat less protein than boys because of their smaller size and muscle mass.
During the embryonic period of pregnancy, teratogens
cause the most serious damage to the developing orgnaism
During the first few weeks of life, newborns are most likely to smile
when they are full
During the preschool years, high self-esteem
greatly contributes to children's initiative during a period in which they must master many new skills
Elliot, age 11, is suddenly afraid to go to school. Which of the following is the best advice you can give to Elliot's parents?
Firmly insist that he return to school, and train him in how to cope with difficult situations
Emma left home to attend college and lived on her own until she got married. As her own children grew up and left home, her parenting responsibilities declined. She eventually retired and her husband died. This sequence of life phases that Emma has experienced is referred to as the
family life cycle
Even preschoolers with good language skills recall poorly because
they are not skilled at using memory strategies
Excessive blood glucose reduces blood flow to the hippocampus, a brain structure that plays an important role in
Fifth and sixth graders describe ___ as the most influential people in their lives
Fifty-year old James filed for divorce from his wife of 25 years. It is likely that he
is already involved romantically with someone else
Following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center, children in Public School 31 in Brooklyn, New York, unlike many war-traumatized children in the developing world,
received immediate intervention, which included a "trama curriculum"
For most new parents, the arrival of a new baby
does not cause significant marital strain
Four to 7-year-olds regard friendship as
pleasurable play and sharing toys
Frank, a kindergatener, says that Pat is his best friend on days they get along. But when a dispute arises he reverses himself. "Pat is not my friend!" Frank's parents should
not be concerned because friendships in early childhood do not have long-term enduring quality based on mutual trust.
Frequent punishment
promotes immediate compliance, but not lasting changes in behavior
From the freshman to the senior year of college, most students
become better at reflecting on the quality of their thinking
Generally, fathers ___ than mothers do
interact and play differently with babies
Generally, human chromosomes come in ____ matching pairs
Gia characterizes her life as full of energy and abundance, contradiction, and stress. According to Levinson, Gia is probably a(n)
young adult
Grief-stricken teenagers are
more likely than school-age children to become depressed
Heavy viewers of television violence
believe that there is much more violence in society than actually exists
Highly aggressive children tend to
seek out deviant peer groups
IQ often enters into educational decisions because it
predicts school performance and educational attainment
In Piaget's theor, 8 to 12-month olds can use ____ to solve simple problems
In Sterberg's triarchic theory, intelligent behavior involves balancing
analytical, creative, and practical intelligences
In ___, infant act on the environment, and stimuli that follow their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again
operant conditioning
In a Vygotskian classroom, assisted discovery is aided by ___ as children of varying abilities work in groups, teaching, and helping one another
peer collaboration
In child-centered preschool programs, teachers
provide a variety of activities from which children select
In early childhood, on average, children add ___inches in height and ____pounds in weight each year.
2 to 3; 5
In early pretending, toddlers use
only realistic objects
In general, when a middle-aged worker experiences and extreme shift in his or her career, the reason is typically
a personal crisis in the family
In healthy, physically fit women, ____ exercise is related to ___ birth weight
regular, moderate; increased
In late adulthood, ____ reduces stress, thereby promoting physical health and psychological well-being.
social support
In line with Kubler-Ross's observations, research confirms that
dying people are more likely to display denial after learning of their condition
In midlife, Janine, a successful dentist with a busy practice, is most likely to
scale back on her career and attend more to herself
In most cases, cerebrovascular dementia is caused by
In the United States, ____ are the leading cause of death among children more than 1 year old.
motor vehicle collisions
In the United States, drug taking peaks around ages
19 to 22
Isabella's mother died in May and her sister died in November. She is at risk for
bereavement overload
Jonathan view himself as reaching great heights of omnipotence and also sinking to unusual depths of despair. Which of the following cognitive distortions contribute to Jonathan's view?
the personal fable
Kubler-Ross recommends that family members and health professionals
not prolong denial by distorting the truth about the person's condition
Kathleen described death as "nothingness." Kathleen is probably a(n)
Katie wonders when she will first be able to hear her fetus's heartbeat through a stethoscope. You tell her that this should happen by the
third month
Korto has a difficult time making decisions. Korto's mother can best help her make rational, logical choices by encouraging her to
identify the pros and cons of each choice and assess the likelihood of various outcomes
Late adulthood is best viewed as a(n)
extension of earlier periods and a time of continued potential
Lynn, a Canadian, and Sasha, a Russian, are probably about ____ percent genetically identical
Many U.S. retirees experience a(n)
decline in living standards
Marital satisfaction is at its peak
from middle to late adulthood
Middle-aged adults who have made desired life changes are higher in____ than those who acknowledge life regrets without making desired changes
confidence and assertiveness
Mr. Willet had a sudden heart attack. He did in a hospital emergency room. The staff was very busy and had little time for contact with his family. Mr. Willet's family members may need
some type of crisis intervention services
Mrs. Hensley is dying. Her heartbeat, circulation, breathing, and brain functioning stop but resuscitation is still possible. She is experiencing
clinical death
Mrs. Peabody was in an automobile accident. The doctor informed her family that there has been an irreversible cessation of all activity in the brain and the brain stem. Mrs. Peabody is experiencing
brain death
Mrs. Van Dalen experienced a cascade of emotional reactions when her mother died. She obviously reviewed the circumstances of death, asking how she might have prevented it from happening. Mrs. Van Dalen is in which phase of the grieving process?
On average, girls reach puberty
2 years earlier than boys
One landmark of male physical maturity is
the deepening of the voice
Raylynne is well-liked by all of her classmates. She probably has high
social self-esteem
Research shows that many adolescents do not use contraception during sexual activity because they
fail to apply their reasoning skills to everyday situations
Rodlike structures called____ store and transmit genetic information
Teachers who are___ and emphasize_____ tend to have mastery-oriented students.
helpful; learning over getting good grades
The Human Genome Project is an ambitious international research program aimed at
deciphering the chemical makeup of human genetic material
The amniotic fluid
helps keep the temperature of the prenatal world constant
The longest stage of labor is the
first, dilation and effacement of the cervix
The outer ring of cells on a blastocyst, termed the trophoblast, will become the
structures that provide protective covering and nourishment
The period of the embryo lasts from
implantation through the eighth week of pregnancy
The placenta
delivers food and oxygen to the developing organism
The sex of a baby is determined by whether
an X-bearing or a Y-bearing sperm fertilizes the ovum
The sperm and the ovum are sex cells, or
To detect problems before birth, doctors use
prenatal diagnostic methods
To work well, vocational education must
carefully integrate academic and job-related instruction
Treating anorexia is difficult because victims
generally deny or minimize the seriousness of their disorder
When the inherited blood types of mother and fetus differ, the most common cause of difficulties is
Rh factor incompatibility
Which of the following countries has a higher teenage birthrate?
the United States
Which of the following is true about the consequences of smoking during pregnancy?
Smoking during pregnancy can increase the likelihood of miscarriage, prematurity, asthma, infant death, and childhood cancer.
Which of the following statements is true about the development of self-concept?
Perspective-talking skills are crucial for developing a self-concept based on personality traits.
Which of the following statements is true about the spread of STDs, including AIDS?
It is at least twice as easy for a male to infect a female, as for a female to infect a male
Which statement is true about part-time work during high school?
The more likely they are to drop out of school
Which style of child rearing is linked to academic achievement in adolescence?
Which substance do American adolescents experiment with most during high school?
White, downy hair called ___ appears over the entire body during the second trimester.
____ hair is dominant, while ___ hair is recessive
Curly; straight
______ are the most common type of multiple birth
Fraternal twins
_____ is typical of children born with fetal alcohol syndrome
Mental retardation
A ___ is an organized set of ideas that is designed to explain development
A mesosystem provides connections across microsystems
A meta-analysis involves the synthesis of results from numerous studies
A questionnaire is a written form of self-report
According to the American Psycholgical Association, researchers must
minimize risk to participants
According to your text, which kind of developmental force has received the most attention?
After completing his history assignment, Nico is excused from having to wash the dishes, a task he detests. Nico's parents are attempting to use ____ to increase Nico's studying.
negative reinforcement
An effective punishment always
reduces the likelihood that a behavior will occur in the future
Dr. Ims studies how children think about television by asking them to answer several questions related to their television viewing. It is most likely that Dr. Ims's research involves using a(n) ____ method.
Dr. Simpson's students were rightfully upset when he used very accurate weight scales (assessing the poundage of each pupil) to determine their grades in a developmental psychology class because his method of assessment lacked
If Hamid wants to do one study to determine whether or not playing violent video games causes children to act more aggressively, he would be best served by doing a(n)
If a behavior is effectively being reinforced it will always
increase in frequency
Imitation is most closely related to the concept of
observational learning
In a naturalistic observation a research creates a setting designed to elicit a response
In an experiment the dependent variable is the behavior that is being
Kelly is doing research on the effect of birth order on personality. Rather than collecting data on a new set of subjects, she is analyzing hundreds of studies that have already been done on this topic and is going to attempt to come up with an overall estimate of what all these other studies have found. What sort of study is Kelly doing?
Multidirectionality, plasticity, historical context, and multiple causation are all key features of the _____ perspective
Piaget's theory emphasizes the manner in which children construct knowledge
Psychodynamic theories place the least emphasis on the ____ portion of the biopsycholosocial framework.
Researchers believe that ___ may be able to successfully treat previously incurable conditions such as paralysis and Alzheimer's disease.
stem cells
Results from individual research participants should be
Sara believes that memory processes develop the same way in all children. Sara is most likely to support a ____ position regarding human development
Self-efficacy focuses on a person's beliefs about their abilities and talents
Teenagers would be considered a sample of a population that includes all individuals between ages 5 to 50.
The argument that each psychosocial strength has its own special age period of specific importance is the cornerstone of ____ theory of development
The basic premise of ___ is that the consequences of a behavior determine the likelihood of the behavior being repeated in the future
operant conditioning
The biggest difference between Vygotsky's approach to development and that of Piaget and the information-processing approach is that Vygotsky placed more emphasis on
the impact of culture
The continuity-discontinuity issue concerns whether there is just one path of development or several
The influence of your family on your behavior would be considered a psychological force
The notion that development is best described in terms of a series of abrupt shifts in behavior best fits with the ___ approach
The strength of correlational research lies in it's ability to determine cause
Virtually all studies done is psychology rely on studying people representative of a large group. The groups of people who participate in these studies are most commonly known as
What is the correct order of Piaget's stages of development?
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational
What type of theorist would most likely describe human cognitive development using the analogy of "mental software?"
an information processor
Which correlation coefficient value indicates the strongest relationship
Which is a problem encountered by researchers assessing the effects of sociocultural forces?
changing ethnic labels (e.g., black American to African American)
Which method of measuring behavior is most effective at directly studying brain activity?
physiological measures
Which most accurately reflects the nature of the scientific study of human development?
Which must always occur in a real-life setting?
naturalistic observation
Which statement best reflects the views of the text regarding research in developmental psychology?
Research findings can be important in shaping social policy
Which statement is not consistent with ethical research?
Never tell subjects if they've been deceived.
Which theorist is best associated with an ecological approach to human development?
Which type of variable is manipulated by an experimenter?
Which word is the best description of the meaning of the term "reliability?"
Who developed social cognitive theory?
Who is best associated with psychosocial theory?
Whose theory of development is best exemplified by the idea that children construct their own knowledge and this constructed knowledge changes with age/experience?
You are doing a study to determine whether smoking nicotine prior to taking a psychology test effects performance on that test. What is the independent variable in your study?
smoking nicotine
You are reading the results of a study that tracked how a particular individual's religious beliefs changed over the course of her life. The study you are reading is most likely a(n) _____ study
You read a research article that concludes that the higher a student's self-esteem, the worse they perform in school. This sort of relationship would best be characterized as
a negative correlation