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110 terms

Research Exam

STUDY
PLAY
Grounded theory method
developing theories
atypical of qualitative research
standardized quality of life questionnare
purpose of phenomenological research
describe experiences as they are lived
Data collection in many types of qualitative studies is considered complete when
a point of theoretical saturation is reached
Qualitative research is based on which of the following?
The belief that multiple "truths" and "realities" exist
here are many different approaches to qualitative research. What is one common thread that is evident in all types?
The process in each kind is a little like working a puzzle and putting pieces together to make it whole.
type of research involve at least a minor degree of control by the researcher to implement the study treatment?
quasi-experimental
type of research has a major focus on examining the long-term, short-term, negative, and positive results of care across a variety of settings
Outcomes research
Based on the Medical Outcomes Study Theoretical Framework, which of the following are examples of processes of care that should be considered when designing the study
nurse counseling regarding how to use ibuprofen for arthritis pain
dissemination of findings of outcomes research
A series of presentation and publications in many venues
clinical guideline panels contribute to outcomes research
They incorporate evidence on health outcomes into recommendations concerning management strategies
A financial incentive is a of care that can negatively influence cost outcomes for third-party payers.
sturcture
A researcher is looking particularly at the organizational hierarchy of a health care system. What specific aspect of quality health care would this address
Structure of care
Outcomes researchers study ways in which healthcare structure and process influence clinical end points, patient well-being, patient satisfaction, and
functional status
Why is it important to widely disseminate the findings of outcomes research
By disseminating the findings of outcomes research, myths can be dispelled or supported
A group of experts from around the world have been gathered together. They come from a variety of disciplines and represent many years of experience in the field. Each has read extensively on the topic of interest and shares what they have read. The goal of this meeting is to identify research priorities. What strategy is being employed in this situation
consensus knowledge building
A researcher conducting outcomes research is focusing on what component of patient care
end results
Which statement best reflects why nurse-sensitive quality indicators are extremely important to the profession
Nurse-sensitive quality indicators are directly related to what nurses do for the patient
A researcher designs a study that uses a random sampling method to decrease the likelihood of bias in the study sample. This strategy was used to implement
control
The primary purpose of nursing research is to
generate scientific knowledge to guide nursing practice
Quantitative and qualitative research approaches are particularly useful in nursing because they
balance each other
A nurse who reads research articles and incorporates research findings into nursing practice would demonstrate which of the following research roles
consumer
Ethnographic research focuses on
trying to understand cultures from an emic perspective
The components of rigor in qualitative research are
openness and adherence to the philosophical orientation.
Which of the following is a characteristic of phenomenological research methodology
bracketing
A research problem is defined as a(n):
general area of concern requiring study
The main reason for not including qualitative studies in reviews for evidence-based practice is
it is difficult to evaluate qualitative studies
Perhaps the biggest obstacle to outcomes research
it is extremely complex and difficult to plan and control
According to Donabedian's Health Care Quality Theory, what three factors must be considered when designing research focused on assessing healthcare quality
Structure, Process, and Outcomes
Cochrane Data Base
systematic review
Which of the following indexes would provide the largest number of relevant nursing sources
Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature
Which of the following research approaches would be most reasonable to use if a researcher is interested in finding out what it is like to live with a person who has a terminal illness
phenomological approach
The approach involves studying behaviors from within a culture
emic
Population-based studies offer which additional focus to research questions
Conditions are studied in the context of a community
Within CINAHL, what search field would you use to limit/revise your search by study type
publication type
The statement, "This study explores the experience of caregiving by adult daughters of parents with Alzheimer's disease," is an example of which of the following
research objective
Low-fat diet is related to lower total cholesterol and higher HDL (high-density lipoprotein)."
Complex, directional, associative
Cancer patients who receive music therapy complain less frequently of pain and require less pain medication than cancer patients not receiving music therapy
complex, directional
Normal saline flush with heparin is more effective than normal saline flush alone in maintaining patency of an intermittent intravenous si
simple, directional
In which situation would a null hypothesis be appropriate
The researcher predicts that there will be no difference among the groups
response, behavior, or outcomes that the researcher wants to predict or explain.
dependent variable
The purpose statement should identify the study variable(s) and what other key aspect of the study
population to be studied
Ethical research follows .
three principles set forth by the National Commission for the Protection of Human Subjects of Biomedical and Behavioral Research.
In experimental research, the researcher's control of the "treatment" is referred to as
manipulation
A research design is best described as a:
blueprint for conducting the study.
Which of the following must be present in experimental research
Random assignment of subjects to groups
Control of threats to internal validity are most stringently considered in which type of study?
Quasiexperimental
Which of the following are important aspect to consider when critiquing a literature review?
Primary sources cited, references current (no more than 10 years old except for landmark studies,gaps in knowledge identified in a way that provides a basis for the study
The main goal of the Public Health Service (PHS) policy
is to ensure humane treatment of animals
Another name for probability sampling
random sampling
The population from which the researcher selects the actual study sample is referred to as
accessibe population
A researcher who does not disclose that a portion of the data from the original study sample was not used in the final data analysis could be accused of:
scientific misconduct
The population is the entire set of individuals who meet the sampling criteria.
target
A researcher looking over a patient's record for purposes of obtaining research data would be exposing that subject to what degree of harm
No anticipated effects
Which of the following will increase the external validity of a study
randomly selected sample
a psychological response of subjects who change their behavior simply because they are in a study.
hawethorne effect
The provision that research be differentiated to potential subjects as therapeutic or nontherapeutic is a part of the:
Declaration of Helsinki
A researcher wanting to explore the lives of women newly diagnosed with breast cancer obtains a random sample of the population. What part of the study will be strengthened because of the random sample?
external validity
A problem for nurses conducting quasi-experimental or experimental research is that many times a patient can not ethically be left without a treatment (i.e., put into a control group that receives nothing). What is the best solution for this problem?
Ensuring all patients receive the standard of care.
The concept of causality would be important in
experimental
threat to internal A validity of a study using a two-group pretest/-posttest design is that:
The pretest may sensitize subjects so they change their behavior or responses on the posttest
The term "internal validity" refers to the degree to which
the independent variable can be interpreted as being responsible for the effects on the dependent variable
At what point in the research process is the literature review conducted in a qualitative investigation
depends on the type of study
Subjects who participate in a study of patients with inflammatory bowel disease are described as the
sample
What international document was developed in 1949 to direct investigators in conducting ethical research?
nuremburg code
Sample size is deemed to be adequate when the researcher is detecting no new knowledge from additional subjects
qualitative sample size
Caucasian , african american, asian amaerican
nominal
In the research process, a critical factor in data collection is
consistency
Characteristics of the sample may affect the validity of a tool for use in a particular study
validity of a measure
The difference between the observed score and what exists in reality (true score) is called:
measurement error
The lowest level of measurement is
nominal
Is not useful in situations where the variable is dynamic and changing
reset retest reliablility
Data characteristics that can be ranked are measured on which scale
ordinal
Type I errors
Occurs when the researcher states that there is a statistically significant difference between groups (the null is rejected) when actually, there is NO difference between the groups (the null hypothesis should be accepted)
Descriptive statistics should be reported in every study for which of the following reasons
to show the sample characteristics
What statistical test would you use to test the difference in heart rate response to exercise between a group of cardiac patients involved in a formal cardiac rehabilitation program and another group exercising at home?
t-test
The mean scores of two groups participating in a study are exactly the same for a particular variable. This suggests that:
The average score is the same for each group
The median of the following set of numbers (12, 4, 13, 20, 4, 10, 14) is
12
Which of the following measures would be helpful in interpreting the relationship of a particular score to the distribution?
standard deviation
E. M. Rogers developed a theory concerned with:
research utilization
Utilization of research findings in clinical areas is slow because:
Nurses are not usually rewarded for using research findings in practice
A model of research utilization such as the Rogers model has been designed to
facilitate critical thinking and assist in decision making for research utilization
The Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) is noted for development of which of the following
Clinical practice guidelines to direct health care practices
Which of the following is one of the characteristics of an innovation that determines the probability and speed at which an idea will be adopted?
compatability
What is a metasummary?
a synthesis of multiple primary qualitative studies to produce a narrative about a selected phenomenon
Which of the following is true about the relationship between reliability and validity
Unless it is reliable, it cannot be valid
Which of the following is true about Likert scales?
Scores from individual items can be summed for a total score.
Cronbach's alpha is used in tool development to determine:
internal consistency
The semantic differential scale consists of:
sets of bipolar adjectives measuring degree of feeling about a concept.
A major advantage of using a questionnaire for data collection is that a questionnaire
can be distributed to large groups of people
Which of the following can be measured using direct measures?
Concrete factors, such as age, gender, height, and weight
Which level of measurement is indicated when referring to a temperature of 70°
interval
Subjects respond to a visual analogue scale by:
drawing a mark across a 100-mm line that has bipolar anchors.
Under what condition would the mean, median, and mode be equal?
when scores are normally distributed
Which of the following will be most affected by scores that are extremely high or extremely low?
mean
A researcher notes that although no mathematical significance was found, some premature infants who were exposed to soothing music for 6 hours daily exhibited lower heart rates and less crying. This finding would have which type of significance?
clinical
The mean scores of two groups participating in a study are exactly the same for a particular variable. This suggests that:
the average score is the same for each group
Rogers indicates that the process by which adopters of research modify innovations to best meet their own needs is:
reinvention
Which of the following strategies for utilization is most amenable to adoption by baccalaureate nursing students and new graduates?
Reading professional journals critically and reporting the findings at staff meetings
During which stage of Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations is the use of mass media most effective?
knowledge
During which stage of Rogers' Theory of Diffusion of Innovations is the use of mass media most effective?
Confirmation
To detect a significant difference between two groups when the effect size is small, what should the researcher do
increase the sample size
Which of the following types of sampling is considered to be the weakest?
convineince
Which uses the higher level of measurement, temperature in Fahrenheit degrees or weight in kilograms?
weight
The aspect of reliability for which interrater reliability is appropriate is:
equivalence
The items in nominal-level instruments should be
mutually exclusive and exhuastive
One significant criterion to use when critiquing a literature review is to
make note of the source of the articles cited.
A researcher wants to obtain a sample of individuals who are HIV positive. Which of the following sampling methods would be the most effective way to obtain a sample?
Network Sampling
The first internationally recognized effort to establish ethical standards was the:
Neuremburg Code
Which of the following definitions best describes rigor in quantitative research?
Amount of control and percision exerted by the methodology