Looking At Movies: Chapter 8
Terms in this set (28)
The joining together of discrete shots gives movies the power to choose what the viewer sees and how that viewer sees it at any given moment.
Also known as splicing. The actual joining together of two shots. The editor must first cut (or splice) each shot from its respective roll of film before gluing or taping all the shots together.
A device for presenting or reawakening the memory of the camera, a character, the audience—or all three—in which the action cuts from the narrative present to a past event, which may or may not have already appeared in the movie either directly or through inference.
A device for presenting the anticipation of the camera, a character, the audience—or all three—in which the action cuts from the narrative present to a future time, one in which, for example, the omniscient camera reveals directly or a character imagines, from his or her point of view, what is going to happen.
In filmmaking, generally an omission of time—the time that separates one shot from another—to create dramatic or comedic impact.
1. In France, the word for editing, from the verb monter, "to assemble or put together."
2. In the former Soviet Union in the 1920s, the various forms of editing that expressed ideas developed by theorists and filmmakers such as Sergei Eisenstein.
3. In Hollywood, beginning in the 1930s, a sequence of shots, often with superimpositions and optical effects, showing a condensed series of events.
A quantity of time. In any movie, we can identify three specific kinds of duration:
- STORY duration: the time that the entire narrative are-whether explicitly presented on-screen or not-is implied to have take.
- PLOT duration: the time that the events explicitly shown on-screen are implied to have taken.
- SCREEN duration: the actual time that has elapsed to present the movie's plot, i.e. the movie's running time.
In terms of cinematic duration, an arc that measures information in a shot; at the curve's peak, the viewer has absorbed the information from a shot and is ready to move on to the next shot.
A style of editing (now dominant throughout the world) that seeks to achieve logic, smoothness, sequential flow, and the temporal and spatial orientation of viewers to what they see on the screen. Continuity editing ensures the flow from shot to shot; creates a rhythm based on the relationship between cinematic space and cinematic time; creates filmic unity (beginning, middle, and end); and establishes and resolves a problem. In short, continuity editing tells a story as clearly and coherently as possible.
A style of editing—less widely used than continuity editing, often but not exclusively in experimental films—that joins shots A and B to produce an effect or meaning not even hinted at by either shot alone.
Also known as establishing shot or cover shot. A shot that ordinarily serves as a foundation for (and usually begins) a sequence by showing the location of ensuing action.
The direction of a figure's or object's movement on the screen.
180-degree system/axis of action
Aka imaginary line, line of action, or 180-degree rule. The fundamental means by which filmmakers maintain consistent screen direction, orienting the viewer and ensuring a sense of the cinematic space in which the action occurs.
The system assumes three things:
(a) the action within a scene will always advance along a straight line, either from left to right or from right to left of the frame;
(b) the camera will remain consistently on one side of that action;
(c) everyone on the production set will understand and adhere to this system.
One of the most prevalent and familiar of all editing patterns, consisting of parallel editing (crosscutting) between shots of different characters, usually in a conversation or confrontation.
When used in continuity editing, the shots are typically framed over each character's shoulder to preserve screen direction.
A match cut in which the action continues seamlessly from one shot to the next or from one camera angle to the next.
Graphic match cut
A match cut in which the similarity between shots A and B is in the shape and form of what we see. The shape, color, or texture of objects matches across the edit, providing continuity.
Eye-line match cut
A match cut that joins shot A (often a point-of-view shot of a character looking offscreen in one direction) and shot B (the person or object that the character is seeing).
Parallel editing (crosscutting)
Also called crosscutting and intercutting, although the three terms have slightly different meanings. The intercutting of two or more lines of action that occur simultaneously, a very familiar convention in chase or rescue sequences.
Editing of two or more actions taking place at the same time that creates the effect of a single scene rather than of two distinct actions. Compare crosscutting and parallel editing.
The joining together of a point-of-view shot with a match cut (specifically, a match-on-action cut) to show, in the first shot, a character looking and, in the second, what that character is looking at.
The removal of a portion of a film, resulting in an instantaneous advance in the action-a sudden, perhaps illogical, often disorienting ellipsis between two shots.
When a transition is meant to convey a passage of time between scenes, the last shot of a scene grows gradually darker ("fades out") until the scene is rendered black for a moment. The first shot of the subsequent scene then "fades in" out of the darkness.
Also known as lap dissolve. A transitional device in which shot B, superimposed, gradually appears over shot A and begins to replace it at midpoint in the transition. Dissolves usually indicate the passing of time.
A transitional device between shots in which shot B wipes across shot A, either vertically or horizontally, to replace it. Although (or because) the device reminds us of early eras in filmmaking, directors continue to use it.
Optical wipe effect in which the wipe line is a circle; named after the iris of a camera. The iris-in begins with a small circle, which expands to a partial or full image; the iris-out begins with a large circle, which contracts to a smaller circle or total blackness.
Also known as stop-frame or holdframe. A still image within a movie, created by repetitive printing in the laboratory of the same frame so that it can be seen without movement for whatever length of time the filmmaker desires.
A method of telling two stories at the same time by dividing the screen into different parts.