Terms in this set (41)

1. Kulpe- Work on imageless thought challenged Wundt's structuralism and laboratory work. Imageless thought = the occurence of thoughts without sensations and images. Studied by presenting words visually and orally. Asked subjects to respond when words evoked an image and when they evoked a meaning. Response times were shorter for words that evoked meaning rather than words that evoked images = conclusion that meanings and images are distinct components of mental experience. Wundt did not separate images from meaning
(instead separated sensations, images, and affections...nothing about images vs. meaning). Kulpe found evidence for a meaningful separation between these two constructs in his experiments.
2. Brentano- Act Psychology: Focused on mental actions as processes rather than Wundt and Titchener who focused on the product of mental actions. Brentano was opposed to the sort of inner observation that was representative of Titchener and Wundt's theoretical perspective as he viewed these methods as contrived and artificial. Perceptions rather than observations of internal stimuli. Brentano preferred the study of memory and imagination as his approach to the study of mental phenomena. Retrospective info (memory) as key. Both Wundt and Titchener's approaches were experimental, Brentano did not stress experimentation, but rather outlined an empirical psychology based on experience (observation). Experiences to be analyzed according to rules of logic before they could be implemented in the establishment of mental knowledge. Protested reductionism. Functionalist perspective due to process orientation
3. Stumpf- Student of Brentano. Like Brentano, protested reductionism and emphasized holistic approach to the nature of experience. Could be conceptualized as a functionalist w/his process orientation as approached science similarly to Brentano. Music as important tool in the holistic study of mental phenomena. Challenged Wundt's perspective that a trained, but nonmusical introspectionist could make more valid judgments re. tone than a trained musician. Musical experts held sophisticated judgments re. tone that were superior to those generated to laboratory studies of introspection.