AP US History Chapter 7 Jeffersonian Era
Terms in this set (27)
An American politician and adventurer. He was a formative member of the Democratic-Republican Party in New York and a strong supporter of Governor George Clinton. He is remembered not so much for his tenure as the third Vice President, under Thomas Jefferson, as for his duel with Alexander Hamilton, resulting in Hamilton's death. He is also known for his trial and acquittal on charges of treason. Jefferson's vice-president for his first term; not voted into a second term because of radical ideas and ventures that threatened to break up the Union and resulted in the death of Alexander Hamilton.
He was a politician without prospects in his own party. Jefferson had never forgiven him for the 1800 election deadlock. Burr accepted a Federalist proposal that he become their candidate for governor of New York in 1804, and there were rumors that he had also agreed to support the Federalist plans for secession. Hamilton accused Burr of plotting treason and made numerous private remarks, widely reported in the press, about Burr's character. When Aaron lost the New York election, he blamed his defeat on Hamilton's malevolence. He challenged Hamilton to a duel. Hamilton was mortally wounded and died the next day. Burr was now a political outcast who had to flee New York to avoid an indictment for murder.
The seventh President of the United States (1829-1837), who as a general in the War of 1812 defeated the British at New Orleans (1815). As president he opposed the Bank of America, objected to the right of individual states to nullify disagreeable federal laws, and increased the presidential powers.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Harrison camped near Prophetstown with 1,000 soldiers on November 7th, 1811, he provoked a battle. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.
Cane Ridge, Kentucky, in the summer of 1801, a group of evangelical ministers presided over the nation's first "camp meeting"—an extraordinary revival that lasted several days and impressed all who saw it with its size (some estimated that 25,000 people attended) and its fervor. Such events became common in subsequent years, as the Methodists in particular came to rely on them as a way to "harvest" new members. The Methodist circuit-riding preacher Peter Cartwright won national fame as he traveled from region to region exhorting his listeners to embrace the church. Even Cartwright, however, was often unprepared for the results of his efforts—a religious frenzy that at times produced convulsions, fits, rolling in the dirt, and twitching "holy jerks."
Incident in 1807 that brought on a war crisis when the British warship Leopard attacked the American warship Chesapeake; the British demanded to board the American ship to search for deserters from the Royal Navy. When the U.S. commander refused, the British attacked, killing or wounding 20 American sailors. Four alleged deserters were then removed from the Chesapeake and impressed. Many angry and humiliated Americans called for war.
Originated among Enlightenment philosophers in France. Deists accepted the existence of God, but considered Him a remote being who, after having created the universe, had withdrawn from direct involvement with the human race and its sins.
In 1793 Whitney invented the cotton gin. Revolutionized both cotton production and weapons manufacturing.
Embargo Act (1807)
This act issued by Jefferson forbade American trading ships from leaving the U.S. It was meant to force Britain and France to change their policies towards neutral vessels by depriving them of American trade. It was difficult to enforce because it was opposed by merchants and everyone else whose livelihood depended upon international trade. It also hurt the national economy, so it was replaced by the Non-Intercourse Act.
Hurt the American economy far more than the British or French, and resulted in widespread smuggling. Exports fell from $108 million in 1807 to just $22 million in 1808.
A Seneca whose seemingly miraculous "rebirth" after years of alcoholism helped give him a special stature within his tribe. Handsome Lake, like Neolin before him, called for a revival of traditional Indian ways. (He claimed to have met Jesus, who instructed him to "tell your people they will become lost when they follow the ways of the white man.") Handsome Lake's message spread through the scattered Iroquois communities and inspired many Indians to give up whiskey, gambling, and other destructive customs derived from white society.
On December 15, 1814, delegates from the New England states met in Hartford, Connecticut, to discuss their grievances. Those who favored secession at the Hartford Convention were outnumbered by a comparatively moderate majority. But while the convention's report only hinted at secession, it reasserted the right of nullification and proposed seven amendments to the Constitution (presumably as the condition of New England's remaining in the Union)—amendments designed to protect New England from the growing influence of the South and the West.
The Hartford Convention's final report demanded:-Financial assistance from Washington to compensate for lost trade from embargos; -Constitutional amendments requiring a 2/3 vote in Congress before an embargo could be imposed, new states admitted, or war declared; -The abolition of slavery; -a President could only serve 1 term; -the abolition of the 3/5 clause; -the prohibition of the election of 2 successive Presidents from the same state.The Hartford resolutions marked the death of the Federalist party.
Forcing people into service. British practice of taking American sailors from American ships and forcing them into the British navy; a factor in the War of 1812.
Fourth Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Federalist Supreme Court justice whose brilliant legal efforts established the principle of judicial review
The power of the Supreme Court to declare laws and actions of local, state, or national governments unconstitutional
Judith Sargent Murray
Early advocate for women's rights. Published an essay defending women's rights to education. Believed men and women were equal in intellect and potential and therefore believed they should receive the same educational rights.
Marbury v. Madison
A Supreme Court case in 1803 where Chief Justice John Marshall ruled that a law passed by Congress was unconstitutional. This established the doctrine of judicial review, where the Supreme Court could overrule actions taken by the legislative and executive branches of the government. Separated judicial and executive branches.
Mercy Otis Warren
Political writer and protagonist of the 18th century. Wrote History of the Revolution published in 1805.
Neolin was a prophet of the Lenni Lenape, who was derided by the British as "The Imposter." Brought to Native religion the idea of a personal god .
Noah Webster, Jr., was an American schoolmaster and lawyer, lexicographer, textbook pioneer, English-language spelling reformer, political writer, editor, and prolific author. He has been called the "Father of American Scholarship and Education". Argued that students should be educated as patriots and taught american thoughts.
Robert Fulton was an American engineer and inventor who is widely credited with developing a commercially successful steamboat called Clermont that sailed up the Hudson in 1807.
Second Great Awakening
A Religious revival movement during the early 19th century in the United States. The movement began around 1790, gained momentum by 1800 and, after 1820, membership rose rapidly among Baptist and Methodist congregations whose preachers led the movement. Accelerated the growth of different sects and denominations.
Tecumseh was a Native American leader of the Shawnee and a large tribal confederacy which opposed the United States during Tecumseh's War and became an ally of Britain in the War of 1812.
The Prophet (Tenskwatawa)
Tenskwatawa, was a Native American religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, known as The Prophet or the Shawnee Prophet. He was a brother of Tecumseh, leader of the Shawnee. He was originally given the name Lalawethika.
Remarkable black leader of the Haitian Revolution. He led a rebellion against French rule on the island of Santo Domingo which resulted in heavy French losses.
Treaty of Ghent
Treaty of Ghent (1814) was the peace treaty that ended the War of 1812 between the United States of America and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. The treaty largely restored relations between the two nations to status quo ante bellum. Due to the era's slow speed of communication, it took weeks for news of the peace treaty to reach the United States, well after the Battle of New Orleans had begun.
War of 1812
A war between the U.S. and Great Britain caused by American outrage over the impressment of American sailors by the British, the British seizure of American ships, and British aid to the Indians attacking the Americans on the western frontier. Also, a war against Britain gave the U.S. an excuse to seize the British northwest posts and to annex Florida from Britain's ally Spain, and possibly even to seize Canada from Britain. The War Hawks (young westerners led by Henry Clay and John C. Calhoun) argued for war in Congress. The war involved several sea battles and frontier skirmishes. U.S. troops led by Andrew Jackson seized Florida and at one point the British managed to invade and burn Washington, D.C. The Treaty of Ghent (December 1814) restored the status quo and required the U.S. to give back Florida. Two weeks later, Andrew Jackson's troops defeated the British at the Battle of New Orleans, not knowing that a peace treaty had already been signed. The war strengthened American nationalism and encouraged the growth of industry.
An American poet. Widely known for his satirical histories of early american life and his powerful fables of society in the new world
William Henry Harrison
Govenor of the Indiana territory, he fought against Tecumseh and Prophet at the Battle of Tippecanoe. William Henry Harrison was the ninth President of the United States, an American military officer and politician, and the last President born as a British subject. He was also the first president to die in office.
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