24 terms

Sumerian Achievements

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Cuneiform
The world's first system of writing. (Could also represent syllables or basic parts of words.) (Sumerians could combine symbols to express complex ideas such as joy or power.)
(First used to keep business records.)
Sumerians
Invented the world's first writing system.
Pictographs
Picture symbols. (Each represented an object, such as a tree or an animal.)
Scribe
Writer
(Way to move up in social class)
Epics
Long poems that tell the stories of heroes.
The Epic of Gilgamesh
The world's oldest epic carved on stone tablets. The story of a legendary Sumerian king.
Wheel
One of the Sumerians' most important developments.
Potter's wheel
Device that spins clay as a craftsperson shapes it into a bowl.
Plow
Another Sumerian invention. Pulled by oxen, broke through hard clay soil to prepare it for planting. Increased farm production.
Sumerian advances
-Sewer under streets
-Bronze to make stronger tools and weapons
-Makeup and glass jewelry
Sumerian Math
Sumerians developed a system based on the number 60. 360 degree circle. 12 month year.
Sumerian Science
Wrote long lists to record study of natural world. Names of animals, plants, minerals.
Sumerian Medicine
Used ingredients from animals, plants, and minerals to produce healing drugs.
Architecture
The science of building.
Sumerian houses
Bricks made of mud were the main building blocks.
Ziggurat
A pyramid shaped temple tower.
(City centers were dominated by their temples, the largest and most impressive buildings in Sumer.)(Sumerians were the first people in Mesopotamia to build large temples).
Cylinder seals
Sumer's most famous works of art.
(Carved into round stone and then rolled over clay to leave their marks.)
(People used them to "sign" documents.)
Lyres
Stringed muscial instuments
Babylonians
Conquered Mesopotamia and created a code of law.
Phoenicians
Built a trading society in the eastern Mediterranean region.
Babylon
City located on the Euphates River near what is today Baghdad, Iraq.
Monarch
A ruler of a kingdom or empire.
Hammurabi's Code
A set of 282 laws that dealt with almost every part of daily life.
(Laws on trade, loans, marriage, injury, murder.)
(Specific crimes brough specific penalties.)
(Social class mattered for penalties.)
(Written down for all to see.)
Hammurabi
A brilliant war leader. He was able to govern a huge empire - babylonian Empire.