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Forensics Chapter 1
Terms in this set (76)
Forensic science is the application of science to:
Both Criminal and civil laws
Forensic odontologists look at bones to identify victims (T/F)
One major problem of the forensic DNA community is the backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples (T/F)
The physical science unit is responsible for examining burned or charred documents (T/F)
Bite marks would be LEAST likely to be found in cases involving:
Examining garments and other objects in order to detect firearms discharge residues would be performed in the biology unit (T/F)
The dramatization of forensic science on television has led to a phenomenon known as the:
Differences in local laws have no effect on the variation of total services offered by crime labs in different communities (T/F)
The case of Frye v. United States deals with the legal issue of general acceptance of scientific principles (T/F)
Which of the following can be rightfully cited as an explanation for the rapid growth of crime labs during the last 40 years?
Supreme Court decisions in the 1960s Advent of DNA profiling. Staggering increase in crime rates in the United States
In Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. v.Carmichael, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that the "gatekeeping" role of a trial judge:
Applied to all expert testimony
The increase in crime rates in the U.S. has led to an increase in the number of crime laboratories (T/F)
The Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives is a state-run agency. (T/F)
The five basic services a crime lab can provide are the physical science unit, the biology unit, the firearms unit, the document examination unit, and the photography unit. (T/F)
Who developed the system known as anthropometry?
Forensic odontogy refers to the study of:
The federal government has no single law enforcement or investigative agency that has unlimited jurisdiction throughout the country. (T/F)
The lay witness provides testimony that relies on:
Which of the following services are typically provided to law enforcement by crime laboratories?
Who devised a technique for determining the blood group of a dried bloodstain, which he applied to criminal investigations?
The comparison of hairs and fibers would be performed in the biology unit. (T/F)
The toxicology unit determines the alcoholic consumption of individuals. (T/F)
The firearms unit may also analyze tool marks. (T/F)
What is the major problem facing the forensic DNA community?
Backlog of unanalyzed DNA samples
What factor(s) do(es) the court usually take into consideration as sufficient grounds for qualification as an expert witness?
Experience, training and education.
Who undertook the first definitive study of fingerprints as a method of personal identification?
The exchange of evidence principle was theorized by:
In the case of Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc., the U.S. Supreme Court advocated that a "gatekeeper" determine the admissibility and reliability of scientific evidence. This gatekeeper is the:
The physical science unit would perform soil and mineral analysis. (T/F)
A polygraph examination does not normally lie within the expertise of the forensic scientist. (T/F)
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle's Sherlock Holmes had a large influence on popularizing scientific crime -detection methods. (T/F)
The American Academy of Forensic Sciences is the largest forensic science organization in the world. (T/F)
The effectiveness of an expert's testimony does not usually depend on the educational background of the expert. (T/F)
The current system of crime laboratories in the United States can best be described as:
It is the responsibility of the forensic investigator to determine innocence or guilt. (T/F)
Which would NOT be included in the work of the biology unit of a crime lab?
A crime scene which involved the collapse of a structure would be analyzed by specialists in the area of:
Specially trained personnel called ________ are employed by some crime laboratories on 24-hour call to retrieve evidence and have all the proper tools and supplies for proper collection and packaging of evidence at their disposal.
Providing expert testimony is not one of the main functions of a forensic scientist. (T/F)
Who is known as the "father of forensic toxicology"?
In 1972, New York began creating an integrated network of state-operated forensic laboratories consisting of regional and satellite facilities. (T/F)
Which unit is responsible for the examination of body fluids and organs for the presence of drugs and poisons?
Frye v.United States established the "general acceptance" rule. (T/F)
What is the LEAST important consideration in the gathering of evidence at a crime scene?
Guilt of suspect(s)
Physical evidence is subject to bias. (T/F)
The tendency of the public to believe that every crime scene will yield forensic evidence and their unrealistic expectations that a prosecutor's case should always be bolstered and supported by forensic evidence is known as:
The CSI effect
The necessity for the forensic scientist to appear in court comes from the U.S. Supreme Court case:
Melendez-Diaz v. Massachusetts
The concept of "general acceptance" of scientific evidence relates to the:
The scientific method requires that scientific evidence be validated by:
Performing experiments, formulating hypotheticals and formulating pertinent questions.
The United States has no national system of forensic laboratories. (T/F)
Dr. Walter C. McCrone made significant contributions to forensic science using the microscope. (T/F)
Which unit applies principles and techniques of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime scene evidence?
Which of the following is NOT true? An expert witness must be able to demonstrate:
A formal degree in forensic science
The fictional character of Sherlock Holmes was created by:
The case of Coppolino v. State highlights issues dealing with:
The acceptability of new scientific tests
The increase in U.S. crime rates since the 1960s did not have any effect on the growth of crime laboratories. (T/F)
The current system of laboratories in the U.S. is decentralized. (T/F)
Who established the first workable crime laboratory?
One of the earliest crime laboratories was founded by Albert Osborn. (T/F)
Locard's exchange principle states that whenever two objects come into contact with one another, there is an exchange of materials between them. (T/F)
A lay witness's testimony cannot usually contain the personal opinions of the witness. (T/F)
The eleven sections of The American Academy of Forensic Science include all of the following EXCEPT:
Karl Landsteiner and Louis Lattes are associated with the area of blood typing. (T/F)
Regional laboratories have decreased the accessibility of many local law enforcement agencies to a crime laboratory. (T/F)
Which specialized area of forensic science examines the relationship between human behavior and legal proceedings?
The oldest forensic laboratory in the United States is that of the:
Who wrote the first treatise describing the application of science to the field of criminal investigation?
Forensic anthropologists can use dental records such as X-rays, dental casts, and a photograph of a person's smile to compare a set of dental remains and a suspected victim. (T/F)
The judicial case that set forth the most current guidelines for determining the admissibility of scientific examinations in the federal courts is:
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceuticals
Forensic science is the application of science to criminal laws only. (T/F)
All illicit drug seizures must be sent to a forensic laboratory for confirmatory analysis. (T/F)
A voiceprint transforms a visual graphic display into speech. (T/F)
An expert witness gives testimony on events or observations that arise from personal knowledge. (T/F)
The final evaluator of forensic evidence is the:
Who established the comparison microscope as the indispensable tool of the modern firearms examiner?
Which entity maintains the largest crime laboratory in the world?
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Forensics Chapter 2
Forensics Chapter 3
Forensics Chapter 4
Forensics Chapter 6
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