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Breeding Exam 2
Terms in this set (75)
What is any observable or measurable characteristics of an individual?
What are the two types of traits?
Coat coloring, muscling and leg set are all examples of what trait?
Weaning weight, Ribeye Area, time to run a mile are all examples of what trait?
What is an observed category or measured level of performance for a trait in an individual?
________________ is not just the appearance it is anything that can be observed or measured?
True or false phenotype and trait mean the same thing?
Genotype + Environment
True or false With breeding methods, we strive to change the genotypes of our animal's descendants?
True or false Assessing the quality of an animal's environment is the most important criteria we should use to select animals as replacements?
True or false Analyzing a system is important in determining breeding objectives?
What are the effect that external (non genetic) factors have on animal performance?
What are three examples of environmental effects?
Weather, altitude, soil type
Do favorable changes in genotype result in improved phenotypes?
The genotype of an animal is just one part of a much larger system. What are the four components of the system?
Fixed resources and management
Economics (production endpoints and marketing endpoints)
What is a general goal for a breeding program or a notion of what constitutes the best animal?
What is a dependent relationship between genotypes and environments in which the difference in performance between two or more genotypes changes from environment to environment?
Genotype X Environment interaction
GXE requires at least 2 different __________ and 2 different ________________?
Genotypes and Environments
What is a race of animals within a species usually with a common origin and similar identifying characteristics?
What is the individual whose particular needs should form the basis for determining breeding objectives?
What is an animal breeder whose primary product is a commodity for public consumption?
What is breeding stock, animals whose role Is to be a parent, or in other words, to contribute genes to the next generation?
What causes competition among purebred breeders?
What is the purpose of animal breeding?
To improve populations
What are the two basic tools of animal breeding decisions?
What is the process that determines which individuals become parents, how many offspring they produce and how long they remain in the breeding population?
What determines which males will mate to which females?
What are the two types of selection?
What is a great evolutionary force fueling genetic change in all living things. Affects wild and domesticated animals?
What is under human control, the type of primary interest to animal breeders?
Artificial selection has two aspects what are they?
What is deciding which animals will become parents for the first time (replacing the culls)- not just young animals example an AI sire.
What is determining which animals will no longer remain parents?
What is the genetic value of an individual as a parent?
What is the simplest form of selection?
When h2 is __________, phenotypes are good indicators of underlying breeding value (genotype)?
When h2 is ___________ phenotype is less useful is predicting genotype, and phenotypic selection is less effective?
Selection requires _____________?
What is a set of animals that are the same sex, managed alike, close to the same age and given the same opportunity to perform in the same environment?
What is info on the genotype or performance of ancestors and collateral relatives ?
What is info on the genotype or performance of descendants?
True or false traits with low heritability require large amounts of information to make effective selection decisions?
What is an area of animal breeding concerned with measurement of data, statistical procedures, and computational techniques for predicting breeding values?
In meat, dairy, and fiber producing species, ____________ technology provides objective estimates of breeding value?
What is a list of genetic prediction, accuracy values, and other useful information about sires in a breed?
What is a measure of the strength of the relationship between true genetic values and the prediction of the animals genetic value?
What are influenced by many genes, no single gene has an overriding influence?
Are polygenic traits typically qualitative or quantitative?
What type of trait is affective by one pair of genes?
True or false Polygenic traits predict breeding value to measure over all effect of individual's genes?
_______________ identify individuals with specific genes?
Simply inherited traits
What are 3 reasons breeders use mating systems?
1. To produce offspring with extreme breeding value
2. To make use of complimentairity
3. To obtain hybrid vigor
If you have a breeding value of 60 and cross a breeding value of 50 what will the expected genetic value be?
What Is the improvement in the overall performance of offspring resulting from mating individuals with different breeding values?
What is the increase in the performance level of hybrids over average level of performance of purebred parents?
Hybrid Vigor or heterosis
What Is an individual that is a combination of species, breeds within species, or lines within breeds?
What is having parents of different breeds of different breed combinations?
What is the mating of sires of one breed to dams of another breed or breed combination?
What is the mating of relatives?
Why do people inbreed?
To increase homozgosity
Increase the frequency of pairing
What is the reverse of hybrid vigor?
Selection increases proportion of ____________ in future generations of a population?
Mating increases proportion of favorable _________________ in future generations of a population ?
What is a mating designed to correct the faults of one or both parents?
What is the study of factors that change gene and genotypic frequencies in a population?
What is it when there are two possible alleles at a locus, p is the frequency of one allele and q is the frequency of the other allele?
What is the relative frequency of a particular one locus genotype in a population?
What are half brothers and sisters can be paternal or maternal?
What is a ancestor common to more than one individual?
What is the form of pedigree depicting the flow of genes from ancestors to descendants?
What is the relationship between animal due to kinship?
Are mating systems designed to increase homozygosity or heterozygosity belong to the general categories of inbreeding or outbreeding respectively/
We can expect at least _________ of inbred individual x's gene pairs to be homozygous because he inherited identical copies from his parent's common ancestor A?
The result of inbreeding is an increase in _______________ and accordingly a decrease in ____________?
Homozygosity and heterozygosity
What is the ability of an individual to produce progeny whose performance is especially like its own and is especially uniform?
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