Earth and Environment: Dynamic Earth

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Terms in this set (...)

geosphere
the solid part of earth that consist of rock, as well as the soils and loose rocks on earths surface
lithosphere
cool, ridged, and includes the uppermost part of the mantle
asthenosphere
a piliable, solid layer of the mantle made of rock the flows very slowly and moves tectonic plates on top of them
mesosphere
the lower layer of the mantle
outer core
a dense, liquid layer made of nickel and iron
who is Alfred Weganer and what did he hypothesis
a scientist who hypothesized continental drift
what supported Weaganers hypthesiss
fossils in South America and Africa
sea-floor spreading
when plates move away, magma will rise and fill the gaps
mid-ocean ridge
the formation of magma that oozes up from the mantle between the plates
tectonic plate
the earths lithosphere divided into certain sections
convergent boundry
the boundry between two tectonic plates the collide
continental v.s. continental
when two continental plates collide then they buckle and thicken to create mountains
continental vs oceanic
when an oceanic plate and continental pate collide the denser one subducts into the athensosphere
oceanis vs oceanic
when two oceanic plates collide the denser one subducts
divergent boundry
the boundary between two tectonic plates that that move away from eachother
result of divergent boundries
undersea volcanoes, ring of fire
transform boundry
the boundary between two tectonic plates that slide past eachother
stress
when plates move, the earth crust changes
fault
the surface along which rocks break
normal fault
when rocks are pulled apart by tension. hanging wall slips down
reverse fault
when rocks are pulled apart from compression, hanging wall slips up
strike slip fault
formed when opposing forces cause rock to break and move horizontally
earthquake
a series of ground vibrations occur
location of where waves energy begins
voci point
p waves
travel through solid, liquids, and gases. they are the fastest to be detected
s waves
causes rock to move side to side and cannot travel through liquids
surface waves
move along the surface of the earth and produce motion only a few kilometers from the crust
body waves
seismic waves that travel through the earths interior
where do most earthquakes occur(which boundary)
California: transform boundary
what type of earthquake produces the most damage
surface waves with a shallow voci
volcano
areas of earths surface through which magma and hot gasses from the asthenosphere escape
explosive volcanos
very rare and can be very destructive. produce clouds of hot debris and can cause molten lock to be thrown into the air and harden as it falls
non-explosive volcanos
most common and can have calm flows of lava
how is magma formed
1) tempature of rock rises above melting point
2) pressure is released from the rock and melting point decreases
3)water is added which decrease the melting point
magma chamber
a body of molten rock deep underground
vent
cracks in the volcanos crust
positive affects from volcano eruptions
fertile soil
negative affects from volcanic eruptions
air pollution, climate change, ash clouds that block sunlight
tsunami
a large ocean wave usually caused by an earthquake or volcano
mantle plums
hot columns of solid material
are tsunamis predictable
no
erosion
a gradual destruction of mountains, land, ect