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Global ch 20 Section 3 Revolts in Latin America
Terms in this set (28)
By the late 1700's
Revolutionary Freedom had gripped Western Europe and spread to Latin America. THis discontent was rooted in
-and political Sytem that had emerged from 300 years of Spanish rule
Members of the Highest social class who dominated Latin American political and social life.
Held top jobs in government and church
-European-descended Latin Americans who owned the haciendas, ranches and mines
-resented their second-class status
People of Native American and European Descent
People of African and European descent
Resented being denied the status, wealth and power that were available to whites.
Suffered economic misery under the spanish who conquered thier lands
Worked on plantations and longed for freedom inthe Caribbean region and parts of the South AMerica
Traveled in Europe and was inspired by the ideals of liberty, equality and fraternity.
Ousted the Spanish King and placed his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne(1808)
Where did creoles get many of their revolutionary ideas ?
The creoles red the works of enlightenment thinkers and watched colonists in North America throw off British rule. Translations of the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution circulated among the creole elite
Hispaniola(known as Haiti)
French Planters owned very profitable sugar platntations worked nearly by enslaved Africans, which was labor intensive and and these slaves were overworked and underfed.
Was born into slavery in Haiti
-that led a revolt in 1791 at age 50
He was a brilliant general and inspiring commander
France, Spain and Britian plus some mulatoes who joined French planters
Fought against the rebels. This revolution took MORE lives than any other revolution in the Americas. But by 1798, the rebels achieved abolishment of slavery and Toussaint's forces controlled MOST OF the island.
Destroys MOST of the French army after Napolean Bonaparte sends them to RECONQUER the former colony.
Toussaint is captured and carried to France in chains where he would die in a cold mountain prison a year later.
However, the french army surrenders.
Declared an independent country in 1804
How were the slaves instrumental in achieving Haiti's independence?
These former slaves united and took up arms to fight for independence under the direction of Toussaint.
Father Miguel Hidalgo
A creole priest who raised his voice for freedom
El Grito de Dolores
The cry of Dolores-called Mexicans to fight for independence- was a speech by rather Hidalgo
Who fought for this freedom?
A ragged army of poor mestizos, Native Americans and some creoles supported the revolt. However, they soon rejected Father Hidalgo's call for an end of slavery. HE was executed and his followers scattered.
Father Jose Morelos
Was a mestizo who called for social and political reform. He wanted to improve conditions for the majority of Mexicans, abolish slavery and give the right to vote to all men. He too was captured and shot after a four year rebellion
Agustin de Iturbide
A conservative creole in Mexico that spent years fighting Mexican revolutionaries. Backed by creoles, mestizos and Native Americans he overthrew the SPANISH VICEROY. And Mexico was INDEPENDENT finally.
He had a short career as Emperor Agustin I but was overthrown resulting in the formation of the Republic of Mexico
Failed freedom for Venezuela
Caused Bolivar to flee to Haiti 2x
He tried to set up a republic in his native Venezuela
He comes up with daring plan to bring his army across the Andes and attack the Spanish at Bogato(present day Columbia)
Venezuelan cowboys who Bolivar formed an alliance with
Was Bolivars new name after he successfully freed Caracas, Venezuela.
Jose de San Martin
Was a creole born in ARgentina but went to Europe for military training. He too led an army across Andes, from Argentina into Chile and defeated the Spanish. He moved onto Peru to strike further blows against colonial rule. He turned over HIS command to Bolivar to win the final victories against spain
Bolivar's attempt at uniting the lands he freed..however, that dream was impossible and was split into
Ruled Brazil, became emperor and accepted a constitution that provided for freedom of the press, freedom of religion and an elected legislature. .
Brazil eventually became a republic after the Portuguese were driven out
How were the goals of South American revolutions different from their results?
There goals were to unite South America and free it from colonization, hoeve attempts to unifie
South America did not work and the union was split.
THIS SET IS OFTEN IN FOLDERS WITH...
Global History 10: Chapter 20
Adv World History Ch 20 French Revolution
Global History chapter 20 Sectoin 1, 2,
Pearson AP World Civilizations Chapter 20
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