APES Chapter 3
Terms in this set (46)
The process done by producers to convert solar energy, water, and carbon dioxide, into glucose and oxygen.
equation for photosynthesis
Organisms such as plants or algae that use the process of photosynthesis to create usable energy for themselves.
The process done by all organisms that converts glucose and oxygen into water, carbon dioxide, and energy. This is done to get energy for necessities of living.
equation for respiration
Organisms that eat other organisms.
The order of producers and primary, secondary, etc. consumers.
A rudimentary representation of energy transfer from one trophic level to the next.
An interconnected diagram that shows the consumption and energy flows from organisms through trophic levels.
An organism that eats producers
An organism that eats primary consumers.
Organisms that eat dead organisms that have already been killed.
Organisms that break down organic material into smaller particles.
Organisms that completely break down organic material and recycle it into the ecosystem.
Gross Primary Productivity (GPP)
The total amount of energy captured by producers in an ecosystem. This is generally about 1% of available solar energy. It is a measurement of kilograms of carbon per square meter per year (kg C/m^2/y)
Net Primary Productivity (NPP)
The amount of energy captured by producers in an ecosystem, not including respiration. This is generally about 40% of the GPP and only .4% of the solar energy. It is a measurement of kilograms of carbon per square meter per year (kg C/m^2/y)
The amount of biomass in an ecosystem.
The percentage of energy that is actually transferred between trophic levels. On average, this is about 10%.
A diagram that expressive the logarithmic, progressive, loss of energy through trophic levels.
The 20 kilometer thick space on Earth in which all life is located.
The process in which life sustaining chemicals are transported and converted through the biosphere. This includes the carbon, hydrologic, phosphorus, and sulfur cycles.
The process in which water from plants goes up into the atmosphere to form clouds.
The process in which water leaves the surface of plants into the air.
The process in which solar energy turns liquid water into water vapor, which elevates into the atmosphere.
Water that flows over areas that have suffered deforestation, into watersheds.
Nutrients such as nitrogen that are vital for the creation of important biological molecules, such as amino acids and proteins.
The process in which nitrogen from the atmosphere (N2) is converted into ammonia (NH3). This can either be done through living organisms, such as certain types of bacteria, or abiotically, with either lightning or manufactured ammonia.
The process of producers taking in ammonium (NH4+) or nitrate (NO3-).
The process of decomposers and water breaking down nitrogen compounds into ammonium (NH4+).
The process of bacteria converting ammonium (NH4+) into nitrite (NO2-) and then nitrate (NO3-).
The process of bacteria in oxygen-poor soil converting nitrate (NO3-) into nitrous oxide (N2O) and then N2 gas.
The process in which charged molecules that are repelling each other being transported through water.
An event that affects an ecosystem. This can either be natural, like a storm or a fire, or anthropogenic, like pollution or construction.
A location into which water flows that is studied by ecosystem ecologists to asses disturbance.
The capacity for a system to take disturbance without the net matter and energy flow being affected.
The rate at which an ecosystem returns to its original state after a disturbance.
The study of ecosystems that have had significant disturbances and how to help them recover.
intermediate disturbance hypothesis
The idea that if an ecosystem takes a medium amount of disturbance, then its biodiversity will be high.
The quality of an ecosystem service that helps us as humans.
An ecosystem's value that is not dependent on its benefit to us or anyone.
Ecosystem services that control biogeochemical cycles.
Ecosystem services such as pollinators or natural filtration that would be incredibly expensive to replace with man-made versions.