Language and Ethnicity Terms

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Dialect
A distinctive local or regional variant of a language that remains mutually intelligible to speakers of other dialects; a subtype language.
Pidgin
A form of speech that adopts a simplified grammer and limited vocabulary of a lingua franca, used for communications among speakers of two different languages
Creole
A pidgin language that evolves to the point at which it becomes the primary language of the people who speak it.
Lingua Franca
a common language used among speakers of different languages for the purposes of trade and commerce
Bilingualism
fluency in at least two language
Language families
a group of related languages derived from a common ancestor
Monoglot
knowing only one language
Polyglot
a person who speaks more than one language
Isoglosses
Boundaries that seperate regions in which different language usages predominate
Slang
informal language consisting of words and expressions that are not considered appropriate for formal occasions
Shatter belts
A zone of great cultural complexity containing many small cultural groups
Toponyms
the name given to a portion of Earth's surface.
official language
The language adopted for use by the government for the conduct of business and publication of documents.
Monolingual states
countries in which only one language is spoken
Multilingual states
countries in which more than one language is in use
Linguistic refuge area
area protected by isolation or inhospitability in which a language or dialect has survived
Standard languages
A language is a standard language when formal agreements exist about the way in which the language is expressed in writing. (English in the U.S.)
Ideograms
The system of writing used in China and other East Asian countries in which each symbol represents an idea or concept rather than a specific sound, as is the case with letters in English.
Agricultural theory
An attempt to explain pattern of agricultural land use in terms of accessibility, cost, distance, and prices.
Conquest theory
theory of the diffusion of the Proto-Indo-European language into Europe through the speakers' overpowering of earlier inhabitants through warfare and technology (e.g., fighting on horseback). Its hearth is around modern day Ukraine.
barrio
a Spanish-speaking quarter in a town or city (especially in the United States)
Ethnocentrism
the practice of judging another culture by the standards of one's own culture
Plural society
a society in which several ethnic groupings coexist, each living in communities or regions variously separate from the others
Ghetto
area of a city where an ethnic or racial group lives or is contained
Race
A grouping of human beings with distinctive characteristics determined by genetic influence.
nationality
the status of belonging to a particular nation by birth or naturalization
enclave
n. a country or other distinctly bounded area wholly surrounded by another area
ethnic cleansing
Process in which more powerful ethnic group forcibly removes a less powerful one in order to create an ethnically homogeneous region
Chain migration
Migration of people to a specific location because relatives or members of the same nationality previously migrated there.
Apartheid
a social policy or racial segregation involving political and economic and legal discrimination against non-whites
ethnic group
a group of people who share a common culture and ancestry
ethnic homeland
a sizable are inhabited by an ethnic minority that exhibits a strong sense of attatchment to the region and often exercises some measure of political and social control over it
ethnic neighborhood
an area within a city containing members of the same ethnic backround
ethnic islands
small, usually rural and ethnically homogeneous enclaves situated within a larger and more diverse cultural context
ethnic substrate
The residu that remains in an area after an ethnic group has largvely assimilated into the larger or hose culture. Is some ethnic distinctiveness that may be reflected in values of the region. (German in Midwest, Scandanavian in Upper Midwest)
cultural preadaptation
A Complex of adaptice traits and skills possessed in advance of migration by a group, giving them survival ability and competitve advantage in occupying the new environment